PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF MILK AND DERIVATIVES
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objective is to give to the student knowledge and understand of scientific, management and industrial aspect concerning production, collection, storage, processing and analysis of milk. The aim is to allow the student to use the acquired knowledge to individuate and resolve problem in the milk production and processing chain.
The student will have to demonstrate the knowledge and understand acquired on:
- productive aspects of the dairy sector;
- chemical and physico-chemical characteristics of milk;
- changes in milk caused by acid and enzymatic coagulation;
- genetic and environmental factors affecting chemical and physico-chemical characteristics of milk;
- role of milk collection and storage on its chemical and microbiological charateristics;
- process to safe milk
- operations and chemical, physico chemical and microbial changes during cheesemaking
- structural defect of cheese: cause and remedies
- main methods to analyse the chemical composition of milk
The student will have to be able to:
- contribute to the resolution of problems during the whole dairy chain
- analyse and point out critical point of a dairy chain to improve milk production and processing
- point out the most suitable methods to find the cause of a milk anomaly
basic knowledge of chemistry and microbiology
Course contents summary
Production and employment of milk produced in Italy. Chemical characteristics, physico-chemical properties, and physiological role of milk. Chemical, biochemical and physico-chemical characteristics of milk proteins. Casein fractions and their structural organisation in milk. Milk coagulation. Lactodynamography: principles and rennet coagulation parameters. Factors affecting milk production and composition: somatic cells and genetic polymorphism. Milk production conditions: milking and cooling. Processing of milk for human consumption: thermal and physical treatments. Cheese: definition and classification. Microbial, chemical, biochemical, and physico-chemical phenomena during cheese-making: the case of hard cheese. Cheese defects: early blowing, late blowing, and slits/cracks. Methods to analyse chemical and physico-chemical characteristics of milk.
Ch. Alais (2000) Scienza del latte. Ed. Tecniche Nuove, Milano, Italy.
Fox PF (1993) Cheese: chemistry, physics and microbiology. Chapman and Hall, London.
Classroom lessons, seminars
Assessment methods and criteria
The achievement of the objectives will be carried out with a oral examination with questions on the whole programme to assess the knowledge and the understand of the contents. The achievement of the capacity to apply acquired knowledge will be verified with questions on strategies to improve milk production and on analysis of a problematic in the dairy chain