Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student will have to demonstrate knowledge and understanding (1st Dublin descriptor) of the basic principles of Physiology. The course aims to provide students with a good understanding of:
1. Mechanisms for basic operation of the human body under physiological conditions,
2. Homeostatic mechanisms that allow adjusting and adapting the activity of organs and systems to the demands of the environment.
The student shall be able to learn the principles of Physiology (5th Dublin descriptor), apply the acquired knowledge to the human body (2nd Dublin descriptor), must be able to independently assess simple physiological problems (3rd Dublin descriptor), and be able to communicate them (4th Dublin descriptor).
Knowledge of human anatomy, chemistry and physics as the lessons learned in previous courses
Course contents summary
The first part of the course covers cell physiology.
The second part of the course is devoted to the organ and system physiology.
The third part of the course is devoted to integrative physiology, with particular reference to the nervous system.
Biological membranes. Ion channels. Nernst equation. Membrane potential. Action potential. Conduction of potential. Synapses and neurotransmitters. Neuromodulators. Synaptic circuits.
Skeletal muscle. Contraction. Stress / length and speed / load curves.
Heart: Cardiac action potentials. Electrocardiogram. Cardiac mechanics. Regulation of cardiac contraction. Blood pressure. Blood.
Respiratory mechanics. Compliance. Capillary exchanges. Nervous control of breathing.
Kidney. Filtration, absorption and secretion. Renal clearance.
Regulation of pH and electrolyte balance.
Sensory Systems: Vision. Hearing. Somatosensory systems. Pain perception and modulation.
Motor control. Reflexes.
Autonomic nervous system: sympathetic and parasympathetic.
Hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
Circulation and blood pressure.
Smooth muscle. Lymphatic system.
Special circulatory districts.
Gastroenteric system: motility, secretions and absorption.
Nerve cell functions. Membrane potential. Synapses. Reflexes. Sensory systems. Sleep. Homeostasis. Autonomous nervous system. Hypothalamus-hypophysis.
Monticelli, “Fisiologia”. CEA.
Berne-Levy, “Fisiologia”. CEA
Lectures, during which the principles of the discipline will be exposed and the main issues will be discussed with appropriate practical examples.
Assessment methods and criteria
• Written exam at the end of the course (30 questions True / False), there are no tests during the course. The acquired knowledge on the topics covered in the lessons will be verified. Every correct answer will be scored with one point; there are penalties of one point for each for wrong answer. The minimum threshold for passing the exam is a score of 18 points, corresponding to 18/30.