MICROBIOLOGY AND HYGIENE
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Acquisition of the scientific expertise instrumental to the understanding of the taxonomic, epidemiological, morphological, physiological, immunological and pharmacological characteristics of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses responsible for infectious diseases in humans and capacity of evaluation, interpretation and managing of microbiological and virological approaches for the diagnosis, therapy, prophylaxis and control of the infections of the oral cavity and cross-infections in dentistry.
Acquisition of the basic concept of epidemiological methods which enable students to read and interpret scientific papers.
Course contents summary
Microbiology. Evolution of microorganisms and microbiology. The bacteria: cell structure, classification, reproduction, sporogenesis and germination, metabolism, cultivation, genetics, mechanisms of pathogenicity. The fungi: yeasts, moulds. The parasites: protozoa, metazoa. The viruses: chemical composition and structure, classification, replication, interference, cultivation and quantitation, mechanisms of pathogenicity. General outlines on infectious diseases: endogenous infections, exogenous infections. Innate and adaptative immunity against infections. Principles of direct and indirect microbiological diagnosis. Antibacterial drugs. Antifungal drugs. Antiparasitic drugs. Antiviral drugs. Mechanisms of resistance of pathogenic agents to anti-infective drugs. Principles of drug sensitivity testing of pathogenic agents to anti-infective drugs. Prevention of infectious diseases: active immunity, passive immunity. The mouth as a microbial habitat. The resident oral microbial population. Acquisition, adhesion, distribution and metabolism of the oral microbial population. Dental plaque. Dental caries. Periodontal diseases. Oral bacterial infections. Oral fungal infections. Oral viral infections. Therapy and prophylaxis of oral infections. Cross-infection control in dentistry. Microbiological principles for disinfection and sterilization. Hygiene. Epidemiological methodology. History and applications of the epidemiology. The sources of the statistical-epidemiological data. The main measures in epidemiology: proportions and rates; incidence and prevalence; mortality and lethality. The standardization of the rates. Epidemiological measures of risk: attributable risk, relative risk. The epidemiological studies: ecological, cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies. The experimental therapeutic and preventive studies. The appraisal of effectiveness of the medical participations; ethical aspects and of privacy.
M. La Placa. "Principi di Microbiologia Medica", Società Editrice Esculapio, Bologna - EdiSES, Napoli.
L. Polonelli. Microbiologia Odontoiatrica. UniNova. Traduzione da P.
Marsh, M.V. Martin. Oral Microbiology. Wright.
C. Signorelli. Elementi di metodologia epidemiologica (VII ed). SEU, 2011
S. Barbuti et al. Igiene. Monduzzi (Terza Ed, 2011).
Lectures supported by visual aids will be used to convey critical
information relating to the contents of the course.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. No interim evaluation is scheduled. Questions on the topics relating to the course content will be used to test the student’s knowledge and understanding in the field, and her/his ability to apply the knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts. Failure to answer to one question, or proven inability to demonstrate at least a basic knowledge on the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam. Upon successful completion of the examination, the final grade will be decided jointly by the examiners, according to the degree of achievement of the objectives (excellent, good, fair, fully sufficient, barely sufficient). Honours will be reserved to students demonstrating particular communication skills and independent learning ability, together with an overall excellent evaluation.