Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of the course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding about etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases, etio-pathogenesis of tumours and the mechanisms of immunological response (innate and adaptive). Great emphasis will be given to molecular pathology, oncology and immunology in order to allow the student to apply the knowledge gained to the future clinical activity.
Course contents summary
Topics of General Pathology and Immunology. Environmental and genetic etiology. Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Molecular and cellular oncology. Blood physiopathology and hematopoiesis. Innate and acquired Immunology. Immunological tolerance and autoimmune diseases. Transplantation, immunodeficiencies and hypersensitivity.
Health and homeostasis, homeostasis alterations. Proliferation, survival and cell death. Cell differentiation. The molecular mechanisms of mutations and DNA repair. Environmental Pathology:
physical, chemical and biological causes of disease.
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Blood physiopathology: anemias, leucocytes alteration.
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia.
Neoplasia. Definitions and nomenclature. Benign and malignant neoplasms. Grading and staging of tumors. Molecular basis of cancer. Oncogenic DNA and RNA virus. Protooncogenes, oncogenes and oncoproteins. Tumor suppressor genes. Survival and pro-apoptoticc genes. DNA repair genes. Molecular basis of multistep carcinogenesis. Angiogenesis. Tumor progression. Invasion and metastasis. Chemical carcinogenesis: initiation and promotion. Carcinogenic chemicals. Radiation carcinogenesis. Microbial carcinogenesis. Genetic predisposition to cancer. Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. Antigens. The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Anatomy of the immune response. The production of effectors of the immune response: antibodies, TH1, TH2, TH17, TC lymphocytes, T suppressors, cytokines.
Immunity to bacteria, virus and protozoa. Vaccinations. Congenital and acquired Immunodeficiencies. Hypersensitivity. Immunologic tolerance and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Tumor immunology. Transplantation.
Immunoemathology :ABO blood groups and serum antibodies. The rhesus (Rh) blood groups. Other blood groups. Haemolytic disease of the newborn.
Robbins e Cotran: Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie. Elsevier VIII edizione.
Abbas, Lichtman, Pillai “Immunologia cellulare e molecolare” 7 ed. Elsevier Masson
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures, with the aid of iconographic material, trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts.