GENERAL AND APPLIED HYGIENE
Learning outcomes of the course unit
In line with the guidelines of the "Institute for International Medical Education (IIME), Task force for Assessment" and, at the national level, of the Schools of Medicine Presidents’ Permanent Conference, the course aims at providing students with knowledge and understanding of the main themes in hygiene and public health. At the end of the course the student will have to be able to frame the most important determinants of health and disease in the field of infectious and cancer diseases preventable with vaccines and in the context of environmental hygiene with the aim of understanding the importance of protect and promote health at the community level.
Semeiotics and Microbiology
Course contents summary
The "General and applied hygiene" module is an integral part of the course HYGIENE, PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH POLICIES and covers general and specific aspects of hygiene and public health.
The teaching is focused on primary prevention and in particular the epidemiology and prophylaxis of vaccine-preventable diseases, in different age groups: childhood diseases and vaccines of the National Vaccine Prevention Plan, adult, elderly and of groups at risk. In addition, vaccination schedules and strategies are presented.
In the second part of the module, on the other hand, the main environmental risks for health are examined with particular reference to the themes of One health and sustainable development. Notions of integrated water cycle, integrated waste cycle and atmospheric pollution are provided.
In addition, students will be taught about the health-related elements in architecture and city planning (eg concept of healthy buildings.)
Vaccines currently used in Italy: mandatory vaccines, the main vaccinations of adults, the elderly and groups at risk.
Objectives of the National Vaccination Prevention Plan and vaccination schedule in Italy.
Definitions of "Cocooning", "Catch-up" and "Booster". Trend of vaccination coverage in Italy. The problem of vaccination hesitancy.
Infectious diseases preventable with vaccinations.
Poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, viral hepatitis B, whooping cough, measles, rubella, mumps, chicken pox, herpes zoster.
Invasive bacterial infections, Hib infection, pneumococcal pathologies, meningococcal meningitis. HPV infections, influenza virus infections and control strategies, rotavirus, viral hepatitis A, typhoid fever, yellow fever. Other infectious diseases preventable with vaccinations (dengue, cholera, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, tick encephalitis)
Environmental matrices and health effects
What is "One Health" and "Health in all policies".
What is meant by environment and what are the most relevant environmental factors that can affect human health.
Effects of climate change on human health.
Air pollution and major air pollutants.
Main effects on human health of air pollution: risks from the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole.
What are the characteristics of the soil and which are the main pollutants.
The integrated water cycle: what are the characteristics of water intended for human consumption and how is the distribution of drinking water. Health risks related to the consumption of polluted water and which are the main treatments. What are the main health and hygiene aspects related to the use of water for recreational purposes.
The integrated waste cycle: how is the removal, disposal and treatment of sewage and what are the health risks; how solid waste is classified and what are the main environmental and health issues. What are the systems for collecting and disposing of solid waste and what are the related health risks. What is meant by medical waste and what are the disposal systems.
What are the most important international environmental policies.
What is meant by sustainable development.
What is the Environmental Code and what are the most relevant environmental regulations in Italy.
Environmental policies and controls in Italy. What is meant by the precautionary principle.
What is meant by Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Health Impact Assessment (VIS)
What is meant by NIMBY syndrome.
What are the tools to increase knowledge and environmental awareness
of the population.
Urban Health and Indoor Environments
What is meant by "Urban Health": what are the characteristics of the healthy city and what is meant by sustainable mobility.
Main aspects of hygiene-health relevance to be considered in urban planning and the main sources of pollution in urban contexts.
Epidemiological aspects and prevention of road accidents and impact of the main road safety policies in Italy.
Confined spaces and the main parameters of microclimatic well-being: indoor air quality, pollutants and health effects. Sick building syndrome.
Main actions to prevent domestic accidents.
• Signorelli C. Igiene, Epidemiologia e Sanità Pubblica (Secrets, VI EDIZIONE). SEU, Roma, 2017.
• Barbuti S, Bellelli E, Fara GM, Giammanco G. Igiene e medicina preventiva (4° ediz). Monduzzi, Bologna, 2011.
• Tarsitani G, Signorelli C, Mastroeni I. Igiene, Epidemiologia e Sanità Pubblica. 5000 Quesiti a scelta multipla (V EDIZIONE). SEU Roma, 2012
• Course materials (slides and lecture notes) from instructors.
The course will be taught through frontal lectures as well as through case reports and interactive sessions that will give students the opportunity to deal with data and real situations to understand how the tools and issues of public health are transversal to different clinical settings.
Assessment methods and criteria
The module is an integral part of the course "Hygiene, public health and health policies"
The course includes a single final exam (written and oral)
The written test will assess the knowledge and skills acquired by the students during the course. The oral exam will serve to verify the connection, learning, critical analysis and communication skills acquired by the students at the end of the course.