GENERAL AND APPLIED HYGIENE (INTERDISCIPLINARY)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
In line with the guidelines of the "Institute for International Medical Education (IIME), Task force for Assessment" and, at the national level, of the Schools of Medicine Presidents’ Permanent Conference, the objective for students is the knowledge and understanding of the main topics of hygiene and public health. At the end of the course the student must be able to frame the most important health and disease determinants in the field of transmissible and non-communicable diseases and in the context of surveillance activities with the aim of understanding the importance of protecting and promoting community health.
Semeiotics and Microbiology.
Course contents summary
The module "General and applied hygiene - interdisciplinary" is an integral part of the course HYGIENE, PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH POLICIES and covers general and specific aspects of hygiene and public health.
General framework of the epidemiology and prevention of infectious diseases with the deepening of the concepts of direct and indirect prophylaxis, vaccinoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis.
Role and importance of health and disease determinants; in particular, the module explores the epidemiology of diseases with high socio-economic impact and examines the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, the concepts of preventive medicine, predictive medicine, screening, health education and health promotion.
The module explores the issues of surveillance and control of specific health risks with particular reference to non-preventable communicable diseases with vaccines, food hygiene, healthcare-related infections (HCI) and antimicrobial resistance.
Epidemiology and General Prophylaxis of Infectious Diseases
Definition of immunoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis. Characteristics of immunoglobulin prophylaxis
Possible uses of immunoglobulins for the prevention of infectious diseases. Undesirable effects of immunoglobulins.
Primary and secondary chemoprophylaxis
Vaccinology. Vaccination plans and campaigns.
What is a vaccine and how does it act? Types of vaccines and main characteristics. Duration of immunity from vaccines. Main contraindications and adverse reactions to vaccines.
What is meant by herd immunity, eradication, elimination and containment of an infectious disease.
The determinants of health and disease: modifiable and non-modifiable determinants, social determinants and health inequalities.
Individual risk factors and lifestyles: physical activity, nutrition, alcohol smoking and other addictions.
Main methods for removing risk factors.
Health promotion, communication, health education, Health Literacy, Empowerment and Advocacy. Professional figures involved in health information and education.
Nutrition and food hygiene: food requirements, food consumption in Italy, malnutrition, overweight and obesity and what are the effects on health. The epidemiology of overweight and obesity and eating disorders.
Food safety: food-borne and food-borne infections, the main agents responsible for food infections and toxinfections and control strategies. Methods for epidemiological investigation in case of food poisoning.
The HACCP system and its applications.
Definition and frequency of care-related infections.
The microorganisms most responsible for HCIs and the risk factors for the onset of HCIs.
Main methods of transmission of HCIs.
How to prevent healthcare-related infections.
The phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance of multi-resistant micro-organisms (Multidrug-Resistant Organisms, MDRO) and
what are the methods of prevention.
Health Risks of the International Traveler.
Epidemiological aspects and prevention of road accidents and impact of the main road safety policies in Italy; epidemiological aspects and prevention of domestic accidents.
• Barbuti S, Bellelli E, Fara GM, Giammanco G. Igiene e medicina preventiva (4° ediz). Monduzzi, Bologna, 2014.
• Signorelli C: Igiene, epidemiologia e sanità pubblica (Secrets, VI EDIZIONE). SEU, Roma, 2017
Tarsitani G, Signorelli C, Mastroeni I. Igiene, Epidemiologia e Sanità Pubblica. 5000 Quesiti a scelta multipla (V EDIZIONE). SEU Roma, 2012
The course will be taught through frontal lectures as well as through case reports and interactive sessions that will give students the opportunity to deal with data and real situations to understand how the tools and issues of public health are transversal to different clinical settings.
Assessment methods and criteria
The module is an integral part of the course "Hygiene, public health and health policies"
The course includes a single final exam (written and oral)
The written test will assess the knowledge and skills acquired by the students during the course. The oral exam will serve to verify the connection, learning, critical analysis and communication skills acquired by the students at the end of the course.