MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of the course of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding about the taxonomic, morphological, physiological and antigenic characteristics of bacteria,fungi, parasites and viruses for the microscopic, cultural and serological diagnostic approach of infectious diseases in man and drug susceptibility testing to antimicrobial and antiviral drugs.The course has also the aim to provide the ability to apply in occupational contexts the knowledge and understanding acquired in the field of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology.
Course contents summary
Structural and functional characteristics of the prokaryotic cell. Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Sporogenesis and germination. Microscopic examination: simple and differential staining. Metabolism and cultivation: media and curve of growth. Quantitation methods. Bacterial genetics. Host-bacterium interactions. Resident bacterial population. Mechanisms of pathogenicity. Antibacterial drugs. Mechanisms of resistance to antibacterial drugs. Antibacterial drug susceptibility testing.
Introduction to medical parasitology: terminology and definitions used in the study of systematic medical parasitology, definition of parasitism, general features and classification of medically important parasites. Presentation of the principal parasitic protozoa of medical interest. Notes on the life cycle of principal blood and tissue parasitic protozoa: Plasmodium sp., Leishmania, Toxoplasma gondii, free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba). Notes on the life cycle of the principal intestinal parasitic protozoa: intestinal amoebae (Entamoeba histolytica), Flagellates (Giardia intestinalis), Coccidia (Cryptosporidium spp.). Notes on the life cycle of the principal genito-urinary parasitic protozoa (Trichomonas). Presentation of the principal helmints of medical interest: Cestoda, Nematoda. Notes on the life cycle of the principal intestinal parasitic helmints: Cestoda (Diphyllobotrium latum, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Echinococcus), Nematoda (Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis). Notes on the life cycle of the principal parasitic helmints of the muscoskeletal apparatus: Nematoda (Trichinella spiralis).
General characteristics of fungi. Structure of the fungal cell and of the fungal colony. Yeasts and moulds. Reproduction of fungi. Notes on mechanisms of fungal pathogenicity. Fungal dimorphism. Cultivation of fungi. Antifungal drugs.
Definition of virus. General features of viruses. Morphology and structure of viruses. Nucleic acids of viruses. Host-virus interactions: steps of viral infection. Cultivation of viruses. Effects of virus replication on host cell (productive and abortive infection; lysogeny; virus-induced transformation). Quantitation of viruses. Classification of viruses. Mutations and genetic interactions between viruses. Antiviral drugs. Viral immunoprophylaxis. Principles of laboratory diagnosis of viral infections.
MICROBIOLOGIA MEDICA - Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio. M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, G.
Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano - Monduzzi Editore.
BATTERIOLOGIA. PARASSITOLOGIA. MICOLOGIA. VIROLOGIA.
Lectures supported by visual aids will be used to convey critical information on the arguments relating to the contents of the course
Assessment methods and criteria
The outcomes of learning will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the arguments relating to the course will be used to test the knowledge and the understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, in order to apply such knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts.