NURSING METHODOLOGY 2
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Microbiology course is part of the integrated course Pathophysiology and Microbiology.
The objectives of the course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding about the basics of microbiology (general characters of etiologic agents of infectious diseases, host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis of infectious diseases, prophylaxis and therapy, drug-resistance mechanisms, nosocomial infections), and provide the ability to apply the knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts (in the approach to the patient with infectious diseases).
At the end of the course, the student, also exploiting the previously acquired knowledge concerning anatomy, biology and physiology, will need to demonstrate knowledge and understanding about the pathophysiological phenomena representing the basic events related to infectious diseases, the etiological agents of infectious diseases and their interactions with the host, the causes and consequences of nosocomial infections.
The student, applying the knowledge and understanding acquired, shall also be able, in collaboration with other professionals, to identify the problems related to infectious diseases and contribute to their prevention.
Course contents summary
Introduction: microorganisms and viruses.
1.Virology. Morphological and structural characteristics of viruses. Viral replicative cycle. Virus cultivation. Common human viral diseases.
2. Bacteriology. The general characters of bacteria. Host-microbe interactions. Normal flora of humans. Microbial pathogenicity. Important pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial agents.
3. Parasitology. The general characters of protozoa. Common human protozoa infecting tissues and blood, intestinal and urogenital tracts. Helminths (notes).
4. Mycology. General characters of fungi. Classification of mycoses. Common human mycoses. Antifungal agents.
5. Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases. Pre-analytical phase: sample collection. Detection and identification of the etiologic agent. Antibody detection. Methods for antibacterial and antifungal susceptibility testing.
Cellular Pathology: Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation.
Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Necrosis and
Oncology: classification and nomenclature; Benignant and malignant
tumors; Tumor aetiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; invasivity
and metastasis; pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. Grading and
The blood: composition, cells, general pathophysiology. Anemia and
Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma. Phases and event of
the haemostatic response. Hemorrhagic disorders; thrombosis and
Inflammation: events of acute inflammation; the exudate; types of
exudate; phagocytosis; chronic inflammation and granulomas; abscesses
and ulcers; chemical mediators of inflammation; systemic effects of
inflammation and fever; tissue repair.
Genetic disorders: mutations; monogenic diseases: examples of
autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders;
Multifactorial disorders: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus.
Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and cooperation. Antigens and
Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors.
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Functional anatomy of the immune
response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and
secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to
infections. Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary immunodeficencies.
Blood groups. AB0 system. Rh system. Other blood groups. Hemolytic
disease of the newborn. Fundamentals of transfusional practice.
Visual aids made available online.
Harvey R.A., Champe P.C., Fisher B.D. Le basi della microbiologia Con approfondimenti clinici. Zanichelli
Lectures accompanied by visual aids will be used to convey critical information on the topics relating to the course content.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to (oppure pertaining to) the course content will be used to test the student’s knowledge and understanding in the field, and her/his ability to apply the knowledge and understanding (in the approach to the patient with infectious diseases.