MEDICAL SCIENCES-SURGERY AND RELATED INTERDISCIPLINARY OBSTETRIC-GYNECOLOG
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to teach the student to
knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms of drug action and
the fundamental principles that govern the movement of drugs
body. The student can use knowledge about
the use of drugs belonging obstetric-gynecological and surgical
the therapeutic and / or in the management of natural or witnessed childbirth
Course contents summary
The course contains notions of general and special pharmacology and their application to the medical and surgical management of patient, either pregnant or suffering from gynecological diseases. They will also provide elements of anesthesiology and specific surgery, as well as preparation of the patient to therapy or to natural and assisted childbirth.
PHARMACOLOGY. The pharmacology as medical science: concept of active compounds and pharmaceutics, origin, nature, chemistry and nomenclature of medicaments, generic drugs. Actions and effects of drugs: therapeutic and toxic activity of molecules.
PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACODYNAMICS: mechanism of drug actions and drug interaction with the constituents of the organism. Site of action and drug receptor. Drugs acting at receptors of the autonomic nervous system. Agonist and antagonist drugs, drugs affecting ion channels, membrane transporters and enzymes. Tolerance and dependence.
PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOKINETICS. Routes of drug administration, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, bioavailability, concept of volume of distribution and clearance. Factors that affect drug responses: race, age, gender, diseases of the patient, drug interactions with food and with specific components of the diet. Clinically relevant drug-drug interactions.
CHEMOTHERAPY. Basic principles of action of antibacterial agents. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects, spectrum of activity and selective toxicity. Main mechanisms antibacterial actions and major pharmacological classes. Toxicity from antibacterial drugs.
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM DRUGS: Phisiology and pharmacology of hemostasis: old and novel antitrombotic drugs, antitrombotic prophylaxis, heparin therapy, oral anticoagulant therapy, antiplatelet therapy. Thromboliysis. Medication of hypertension: diuretics, vasodilators, ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers.
Drugs affecting heart and coronary system: digitalis and other positive inotropic drugs, nitroderivatives and antiarrhythmic drugs.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS: Physiology of neurotransmission; Specific and non-specific CNS depressants: general anaesthetics, hypnotic-sedatives (benzodiazepines and barbiturates), morphine and congeners.
ANALGESIC DRUGS: Local anesthetics and systemic analgesics. NSAIDs: classification, mechanism of action, side effects, drug interactions, analysis of the literature. Main NSAID classes: salicylates, propionic acid derivatives, arilacetic acid derivatives, arilsulfonammides, coxibs, oxicams. Paracetamol: general effects, side effects.
Opiates: mechanisms of analgesic action, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical uses, routes of administration, toxicity, literature analysis. Main opioid classes and prototypes: morphine, codeine, fentanyl, buprenorphine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, methadone. NSAIDs-opiate association. New opiates: tramadol tapentadol and adjuvants. Nursing management of the patient with pain: control of consciousness, vital signs, side effects of medications, alternative ways of drug delivery.
Compendio di Farmacologia generale e speciale. Amico-Roxas et al.,
U T E T , 2 0 1 2
Farmacologia generale e speciale per le Lauree sanitarie. Cella et al.,
P I C C I N , 2 0 1 0
Basic pharmacology for nurses. Clayton and Stock, Mosby 2012
Assessment methods and criteria