MICROBIOLOGY, GENERAL PATHOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS HISTORY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of the course are to enable the acquisition: of knowledge about the basics of etiologic agents of infectious diseases (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and viruses), with particular reference to the diseases of interest in obstetrics and gynecology; of knowledge and understanding the mechanism of cellular damage response, the pathogenesis of some human genetic and metabolic diseases the biology of tumours the mechanism of innate and specific immune system, the pathogenesis of the main immunopathologic diseases, the immunoemathology A and problems related to blood transfusion; the main steps in the historical development of midwifery practice.
Course contents summary
Introduction to microbiology and virology. The general characters of bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Microbial pathogenicity. Morphological and structural features of viruses. Viral pathogenicity.
Common infectious diseases of interest in obstetrics and gynecology. Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases
General alteration of growth and death, cellular and molecular and cellular oncology. Genetic and metabolic diseases and general physiopathology.
Blood and hematopoiesis and components of innate and acquired immune system. General features of acute and chronic inflammation and immunopathology. The main steps in the historical development of midwifery practice.
Bacteriology. General characteristics of the prokaryotic cell. Notes on bacterial metabolism and reproduction. Host-bacteria interactions. Normal flora of humans. Pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria (adhesins, esoenzymes, bacterial eso- and endotoxins). Notes on the main antibacterial drugs and in vitro susceptibility testing. Main bacteria responsible for infectious diseases in humans, with particular reference to to the diseases of interest in obstetrics and gynecology (gonorrhea, syphilis, infection caused by group B streptococci).
Mycology. General characteristics of fungi. Fungal cell and colony; yeasts and filamentous fungi. Urogenital infections caused by species of the genus Candida.
Parasitology. General characteristics of protozoa; host-parasite interactions; ways of penetration and elimination of the parasites. Protozoan parasites of blood and tissues: Toxoplasma gondii; protozoan parasites of the uro-genital tract: Trichomonas vaginalis.
Virology. Main biological, morphological and structural characteristics of viruses. The phases of viral infection. Infections caused by the major sexually and mother-to-child transmitted viruses: hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus(HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papilloma virus (HPV), herpetic viruses (Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex viruses, type 1 and type 2).
Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases: direct methods (demonstration in biological samples of aetiologic agents and/or their components); indirect methods (demonstration of a recent specific immune response). Collection of biological samples for the laboratory diagnosis of bacterial, fungal, parasitic and viral infections.
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Definition, nomenclature, and biological properties of benign and malignant neoplasms. Molecular basis of cancer. Protooncogenes, oncogenes. Tumor suppressor genes. Diagnosis and biological basis of anti-neoplastic therapies.
Transmission patterns of single-gene disorders (Familial hypercholesterolemia, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease).
Atherosclerosis, trombosis, angina and myocardial infarction. Diabetes mellitus
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Stem cells.
Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Vaccinations. Hypersensitivity. Immunologic tolerance and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Transplantation. Immunodeficiency
General features of acute and chronic inflammation
ABO blood groups and serum antibodies. The rhesus (Rh) blood groups. Other blood groups. Haemolytic disease of the newborn.
Basic knowledge on the taking of a blood sample and fitness of donors.
Blood components and plasma by-products: properties, directions for use, preparation procedures and preservation.
Complications following blood transfusion and their handling
HISTORY OF MIDWIFERY
The main steps in the historical development of midwifery practice.
Harvey R.A., Champe P.C., Fisher B.D. Le basi della microbiologia Con approfondimenti clinici. Zanichelli
Parola M. “Patologia Generale” EDISES
Pontieri G.M. “Elementi di Patologia Generale” III edizione PICCIN
Pontieri G.M. Patologia generale e Fisiopatologia generale. III edizione PICCIN
Fondamenti di Storia dell’Ostetricia di G.FORLEO
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures by using PowerPoint trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination and written. No interim evaluation is programmed. Questions on the topics relating to the course content will be used to test the student’s knowledge and understanding in the field, and her/his ability to apply the knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts. Failure to answer to one question, or proven inability to demonstrate at least a basic knowledge on the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam. Upon successful completion of the examination, the final grade will be decided jointly by the examiners, according to the degree of achievement of the objectives (excellent, good, fair, fully sufficient, barely sufficient). Honours will be reserved to students demonstrating particular communication skills and independent learning ability, together with an overall excellent evaluation.