GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to enable the student to understand and apply the basic concepts and lines of reasoning of Chemistry. In particular, the primary objective will be to show, also by using examples drawn from everyday experience, that chemistry provides the Language to
describe the transformations of matter. The student could use the acquired knowledge to deal with the chemical contents of the following courses. The exercises will be aimed to familiarize the student with the quantitative aspects of chemical problems and to apply her/his knowledge to specific examples.
LEARNING OUTCOMES. The students are invited to develop their communication skills, their ability to learn and make connections between the various chemical arguments. At the end of the course, the student will demonstrate her/his knowledge about: the structure atom; the nature of the chemical bond and the structure of the molecules; the states of matter and the changes of state; thermodynamics and chemical kinetics; the principles of electrochemistry; the inorganic chemistry of the elements of the main groups. In addition, the student must be able to solve basic problems of the stoichiometry.
Prerequisites: elements of chemical nomenclature, elements of physics and mathematics (secondary school level). The prerequisites are verified by means of a multiple choice test before the enrolment.
Course contents summary
The first part of the course deals with the matter from the microscopic point of view, ie the principles of the atomic/molecular theory are exposed. Then it is described how matter organizes itself on macroscopic scale and the general characteristics of the states of
aggregation. Complete the course, the parts related to thermodynamics and kinetics. The chemical reactivity is further developed through the exposure of the chemistry of
the elements of the main groups of the Periodic Table. Some of the topics will be accompanied by exercises.
GENERAL CHEMISTRY - The atomic theory of matter. Atomic number and atomic mass, isotopes. The Bohr model and the quantization. Quantum numbers, atomic orbitals. Atomic electron configuration (Pauli's principle, Hund's rule). The periodic table, main periodic properties. Electronegativity. The chemical bond: ionic bond, covalent bond, metal bond. Lewis' structures. Molecular geometry, VSEPR theory. Orbital hybridization, hybridization in the carbon atom. Polarity in the molecules. Van der Waal's forces, hydrogen bond. Ideal gases, real gases. Structure and general properties of liquids. Changes of state. Phase diagrams. Phase diagram of water. Solutions: examples, composition. Raoult's law and ideal solutions. Colligative properties. The solid state. Crystalline and amorphous solids. Metallic, ionic, covalent and molecular crystals. Thermodynamics (enthalpy, entropy, Gibb's free energy). Chemical equilibrium. Le Chatelier's principle. Equilibriums in solution. Solubility, Kps. Acids and bases. Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concept of acids and bases. pH, pH indicators. Hydrolysis, buffer solutions. Elements of electrochemistry and of chemical kinetics.
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY - Chemistry of hydrogen, alkali metals, alkaline earths, aluminium, carbon, silicon, tin, lead, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur, halogens, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, silver, zinc, mercury.
STOICHIOMETRY - Exercises about: IUPAC naming conventions, empirical, molecular and structural formulas, writing and balancing chemical reactions, mole, limiting reagent, yield of a reaction, molarity and normality of solutions.
The slides used for the lectures are provided, together with some exercises and some examples of the tests used in the examinations of the previous years.
The following texts are recommended:
C.KOTZ, P.TREICHEL, J.TOWNSEND: "Chemistry", EdiSES, and IV., Naples.
RHPETRUCCI, WSHARWOOD: "General Chemistry", Piccin, Padua.
P.ATKINS, L.JONES: "Principles of Chemistry", Wadsworth Publishing
The course will be conducted through lectures accompanied by the projection of slides, previously provided to the student. Care should be taken: to reaffirm constantly the proper use of the chemical language; to include examples from the "common life"; to underline the links between the various parts of the course; to encourage the active participation of the students. Stoichiometric problems, whether they are reactions or problems, are an essential part of the course. Exercises will be carried out by the teacher and some exercises left to the student, who will have a way to measure her/his ability to learn and independent judgment; then the exercises will be corrected in the classroom.
For students who do not fulfill prerequisites, supplementary lessons are provided.
Assessment methods and criteria
The examination includes a written test and an oral discussion. The written test, lasting three hours, is divided into ten questions, eight questions concerning the general part of the course and two the stoichiometry. Each question provides for a maximum score of 5. Access to the oral test is conditional on passing the written test with a minimum score of 18/30. The oral test is intended, in particular, to verify the acquired knowledge of the language of chemistry and of the communication skills of the student.