Inspection and control of foods of animal origin
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The teaching course of "Inspection and control of food of animal origin" has the primary purpose of providing students with the appropriate knowledge on the application of official controls in the various areas of expertise of the veterinaries employed by the National Health Service. In particular, the studentsshould be able to: 1) Know the European and national legislation concerning: hygienic control of food products of animal origin (meat, milk, eggs, fishery products, molluscs and gastropods); animal welfare during transport; protection of animals during pre-slaughter stunning; inspection practices during slaughter; slaughter of game; disposal of animal by-products; marketing of table eggs; application of the company self-control practices and the HACCP system. Know the systematic of fishery products to recognize the main fish species on the market and evaluate the characteristics of healthiness for the consumer. Being able to understand and use the scientific and regulatory terminology of the various disciplines. (knowledge and ability to understand). 2) Be able to use the knowledge acquired on zoonotic diseases transmissible to humans through the consumption of food products of animal origin, and on the presence of environmental contaminants and chemical residues, to assess the dangerousness of products intended for human consumption (ability to apply knowledge and understanding). 3) At the end of the lessons the students must demonstrate not only that he has understood the knowledge related to the various topics covered during the theoretical and theoretical-practical lessons and how to correlate them to the various organizational levels but to integrate and manage them in interdisciplinary fields (autonomy of judgment). 4) The students must demonstrate to be able to communicate clearly the knowledge learned using a language always appropriate to interlocutors, in articulating as regards both the scientific and legislative language (communication). 5) In addition, the students should demonstrate that they are able to correlate, integrate and manage interdisciplinary areas, and that they have developed skills that make them autonomous in self-management of knowledge. (learning ability).
Course contents summary
The course focuses mainly on the current European regulations on hygiene and inspection of food of animal origin (EC Reg. 178/2002; EC Reg. 852/2004; EC Reg. 853/2004; EC Reg. 854/2004; EC Reg. 882/2004; EC Reg. 2073/2005; EC Reg. 1760/2000; EC Reg. 1/2005; EC Reg. 881/2006; EC Reg. 589/2008; EC Reg. 1069/2009; EC Reg. 1099/2009; EU Reg. 217/2014; EU Reg. 219/2014; EU Reg. 653/2014; EU Reg. 1114/2014, EU Reg. 2017/625; EU Reg. 2017/1981). Also the Italian Law No 283/1962 is to be considered. In particular they examine questions related to the inspection of meat, milk, eggs, fish products and shellfish edible bivalves.
Meat: sanitary inspection of fresh meat for slaughter (cattle, pigs, horses, sheep and goats, poultry, lagomorphs, farmed game); sanitary certifications of animals; ante- and post-mortem inspection; stunning and slaughtering techniques; health marking, maturation of the meat, the exclusion of meat from human consumption. Emergency slaughter, slaughter deferred and family use slaughter. Problems relating to BSE and the detection of Trichinella. Animal protection standards during slaughter, animal welfare during transport to the slaughterhouse, animal by-products.
Fishery products: evaluation of freshness, recognition of species of the main Chondrichthyes, bony fishes, molluscs and crustaceans of high commercial importance, inspection of fishery products. Official controls on fishery products.
Edible bivalve molluscs: classification of shellfish waters; purification of molluscs, packaging and inspection.
Milk: hygienic quality of raw milk, sanitary standards of dairy farms, official controls on raw milk.
Eggs: commercial classification grade A and B eggs. Packing for eggs, egg codes.
Hygiene in food plants. Food business operators own-check plans ; the application of the HACCP system to control hazards associated with food. National Residues Plan. Audit and inspection activities
Regulations on the hygiene of food products: Italian Law 283/1962; EC Regulation 178/2002 (food at risk; traceability of food; EFSA istitution, RASFF); EC Regulation 852/2004; EC Regulation 852/2004
Importance of the own-control plan in the food industries: prerequisites and HACCP system.
Transport of animals to slaughter: EC Reg. 1/2005
Protection of animals during killing: Reg. 1099/2005
Stunning and slaughter techniques in different animal species: cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, birds, lagomorphs. Consequence of wrong stunnig on the qualitative characteristics of the meat.
Special emergency slaughter: EU Reg. 218/2014
Pig slaughter for family use.
Rules on hunted game meat: EC Reg. 854/2004
Official control at the slaughterhouse: animal welfare, documentary control, ante-mortem visit and post-mortem visit: EC Reg. 854/2004. Role of veterinarian inspector and specialized personnel (ASU). Reg. UE 219/2014 (modernization of slaughter of pigs)
Control of trichinae in endangered animal species: Reg. 1375/2015
Microbiological controls in slaughterhouses: EC Reg. 2073/2005, EU Reg. 1086/2011; EU Reg. 217/2014
Categorization of animal by-products: EC Reg. 1069/2009
The maturation of meat: traditional and dry-aging methods. Qualitative characters of the meat. PSE and DFD meat.
Classification of bovine carcasses: EU Reg. 1308/2013 (Annex IV)
Classification of pig carcasses: D.M. 12/10/2012
Labelling of beef, pork, horse, ovi-caprine and poultry: EU Regulation 1169/2011; EC Reg. 1760/2000: EU Regulation 653/2014; D. M. 01/16/2015; EC Reg. 543/2008
Minced meat, mechanically separated meat, meat preparations and meat products: EC Reg. 853/2004
The official control in the slaughtering and food processing plants: EC Reg. 882/2004
The new regulation on official controls of foodstuffs: EU Regulation 2017/625
Health conditions of dairy animals and hygienic production of milk: EC Reg. 853/2004
The official controls on raw milk: EC Reg. 854/2004. Contamination from aflatoxins in milk and limits of the EC Reg. 1881/2006
Decree 9/12/2016: labelling of milk and dairy products
Commercialization of table eggs: EC Reg. 859/2008
Production and controls on egg products: EC Reg. 853/2004
Conditions and transport temperatures of food products: EC Reg. 853/2004
Overview of mollusc farming. Classification of bivalve molluscs, gastropods, tunicates and echinoderms of major commercial interest. Health hazards associated with the consumption of bivalve molluscs: algal biotoxins PSP, DSP, ASP; microbiological and chemical hazards. Evaluation of freshness and vitality in molluscs.
Hygienic production of bivalve molluscs: EC Reg. 853/2004 - Official mollusc farming controls: EC Reg. 854/2004
Classification of cephalopods and crustaceans of greater commercial interest. Evaluation of freshness in crustaceans.
Classification of fish and elasmobranchs of major commercial interest.
Classification of teleost fish: species with ventral jugular, thoracic and abdominal fins. Evaluation of freshness in teleost fishes (Reg. EC 2406/1996).
Recognition of species, in particular for poisonous fish (for example, Tetraodontidae, Diodontidae, Molides and Balistidae), fishes subject to frequent commercial frauds, fishes parasitized by zoonotic parasites (Anisakis, Opistorchis, Diphillobotrium).
Zoonotic and not zoonotic parasites in fishery products. Poisonous fish species. Accumulation of heavy metals in fishery products and limits of the EC Reg. 1881/2006. Histamine intoxication and Reg. 2073/2005.
Hygienic-sanitary control of fishery products at production and marketing sites (EC Reg. 853/2004) and official controls in the fish sector (EC Reg. 854/2004).
Sanita' Pubblica Veterinaria e Igiene degli Alimenti
Cenci Goga - Fermani - AAVV ,
Le Point Veterinaire ( 2014)
Manuale di ispezione e controllo delle carni . Stella, Scanziani, Ghisleni. Ed. Zanichelli, II edizione (2018)
Lezioni di igiene e controllo dei prodotti della pesca
T. Civera, Paolo Manzoni (Eds.) printed by CLU
Italian and European legislations
Law No 283/1962
Regulation CE 178/2002
Regulation CE 852/2004
Regulation CE 853/2004
Regulation CE 854/2004
Regulation CE 882/2004
Regulation CE 1760/2000
Regulation CE 1/2005
Regulation CE 1881/2006
Regulation CE 589/2008
Regulation CE 1069/2009
Regulation CE 1099/2009
Regulation CE 1129/2011
Regulation UE 217/2014
Regulation UE 219/2014
Regulation UE 653/2014
Regulation EU 1114/2014
Regulation UE 2017/625
Regulation UE 2017/1981
visits to slaughterhouses
visits to manufacturing plants
Assessment methods and criteria
Written test with open answers (test duration: 1.5 hours). The questions are ten; each answer is assigned a score from 0 (missing or wrong answer) to 3 points, for a total score of 30. In case of excellent answers, the score may be 30 cum laude.
The results of the written test are told to the students on the day they are summoned by the teacher.