Food Technology 1
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding:
the course aims to enable the student to have knowledge and understanding in the field of food processes, so that the student can start to operate in the dairy industry.
Applying knowledge and understanding:
the course aims to enable students to apply knowledge of dairy processes and products and to give them competences as the ability of devising and sustaining arguments and solving simple problems of dairy field.
the course aims to enable the student to begin to develop an autonomous capacity to draw conclusions thanks to the skills learned to seek and gather relevant data, interpret them and use the most appropriate to provide simple answers to well-defined problems of dairy field
the course aims to enable the student to communicate his knowledge about dairy products and processes, ideas, problem solutions to other students, and when he started to work to his supervisor and / or to customers
The course aims to give students the learning skills necessary to undertake further studies in food science and technology with a high degree of autonomy.
Technical physics knowledge is useful for an efficient understanding of the course contents.
Course contents summary
The class is divided into three complementary parts.
The first part shows the main properties of milk and the unit operations common to all the filelds of the dairy industry, ending with cheesemaking-technology.
The second part shows the principles at the basis of the most relevant unit operations of food technology, while the third applies this knowledge to specific dairy products, linking the specific unit operations in order to describe the processes and the corresponding products.
The class puts in relationship processes and products also in the light of legal requirements, and gives some examples about different process choices leading to achieve the same variety of product, illustrating their influence on the product properties.
The class takes care to anticipate some contents related to following courses of microbiology and food chemistry, delivered in the third year, being these contents essential for the overall understanding of dairy technology.
Raw milk microbiological, chemical and physical properties.
Milk collect, refrigeration and storage before further processing
Cheese: main steps of cheesemaking technology applied to specific cheese varieties (fresh, soft, cooked, stretched and interior mould ripened cheeses)
Fluid flow, with short notes about pumps and rheological flow behaviour of fluids
Heat transfer and physical properties of foods
Chilling and freezing
Overview of equipment for heat transfer
Mass transfer between phases. Diffusion.
fluid component separation by cross flow filtration
flotation, sedimentation and centrifugal separation
liquid liquid extraction and solid liquid extraction
Mixing operation applied to fluids and solids
Size reduction operations applied to particles dispersed into fluids (homogenisation) or to solid foods (cutting, slicing, etc)
Modification of structure and texture of foods (crystallization, coagulation)
Heat and matter transfer combined operations:
Packaging of fluids and solids
Heat treatments aimed to food sterilization. Fundamentals of heat inactivation kinetics. D, z and F0 parameters.
In container batch or continuous sterilization
Continuous mass sterilization
Third part part
Condensed and dried milk
Milk cracking products (casein, milk protein concentrates, whey protein concentrates, lactose etc)
Cream, butter and Mascarpone
Slides provided by the teacher
To improve knowledge some texts are recommended.
To enhance knowledge about unit operations of food technology:
Singh R.P. Heldman D.R. (2015) Principi di tecnologia Alimentare. CEA Ambrosiana Milano
Pompei C. (2009) Unit operations in food technology. CEA Milan
Fellows P. J. (2000) "Food Processing Technology: Principles and Practice" (Woodhead
Publishing in Food Science and Technology) Second edition
Earle R. L. "Unit Operations in Food Processing" - Free Web edition by Dick and
Mary Earle, with the support of the NZIFST: h t t p: / / w w w. n t i f t s. o r g. n c / u n i t o p e r a t i o n s / i n d e x. h t m
To better know the characteristics of the processes and the related dairy products:
Mucchetti G., Neviani E. (2006) Microbiology and dairy technology. quality
and safety. Tecniche Nuove Editore, Milano
Dairy Processing Handbook (1995). TetraPack Publisher
Lectures with slides presentation.
During the lessons, preferentially when the lectures about a specific argument are over, students are required to indicate which unit operations and/or process options may be chosen to fulfill the product standard.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment is carried out in one written examination test, scheduled as follows:
the test consists of 2 main parts, one dedicated to the unit operations of food technology and the other to dairy products technology.
Each of these two main parts is further divided into two parts:
the first, comprising a series of multiple-choice questions to ascertain the knowledge of the topics.
the second, consisting of three open questions in which students must demonstrate that they understand and know how to connect the topics also in order to take simple operational decisions.
The answers will have to be focused on the relevant aspects of the open question, written in legible handwriting and must be sufficiently synthetic, without being trivial. Lay outs or other diagrams can be inserted if these tools contribute to make clear and concise the text.
The grade is given on the basis of the following criteria:
A. each of the two series of multiple-choice questions contributes to the final score of up to a maximum of 6 points, for a total of 12 points
B. each of the 6 open questions contributes to the final score of up to a maximum of 4 points, for a total of 24 points.
The test is passed if the student gets a score of at least 3 points in each of the two parties with multiple choice questions and at least 6 points in each of the two parties with open answer.