General Microbiology and Microbiology of the food
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student will acquire the basic knowledge of the microbiology, concerning the structure and physiology of the microbial cell, which are essential for understanding the food microbiology topics. During the course the student will acquire extensive knowledge on biodiversity existing among the microorganisms and it should be able to understand the different cellular response to environmental factors. Knowledge on microbial physiology will be useful to evaluate the development of microorganisms in food. The course aims to put the student in a position to draw conclusions about the effect of the presence and development of different microorganisms in food as defined in agreement with the specific objectives of the Master of Science in Food Gastronomy and of the food microbiology. The student should be able to appropriately utilize the scientific language and the specific lexicon of the subject, showing the ability to describe and transfer in oral and written form the acquired concepts.
Course contents summary
The course is composed by two partial courses. The course of General Microbiology focus on cellular structure and physiology of prokaryotic microorganism and on the basic microbial taxonomy. The course of Food Microbiology focus on the microbial contamination, the factors that influence the growth of microorganisms in foods, the modalities of prevention or reduction of microbial contamination in foods and on the effect of different microorganism in foods.
PART 1 -GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY .Microbiology science; Microbiology History; microorganisms and their natural environments; the impact of microorganism of humans; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS.The cytoplasme; Cell membranes; Cell walls; Microbial locomotion; Surface structures and inclusion of prokaryotes; Sporulation; Microscopy; Cell morphology. NUTRITION AND METABOLISM OF MICROORGANISMS. Nutrition and the transport of nutrient in the cell; Bacteria metabolism: energetic and enzymes major catabolic pathways. MICROBIAL GROWTH. Bacterial cell division; growth of bacterial population; environmental effects on microbial growth; stress response; Biofilm; Evaluation of microbial growth; laboratory cultures. INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIAL TAXONOMY. An overview of the phylogenesis; Classical and molecular taxonomy; main bacterial groups. OTHER MICRORGANISM: Fungi:characteristics, riproduction, metabolism; Virus and batteriofage
PART 2-FOOD MICROBIOLOGY
The microbiological quality of foods. The microorganisms in fermented and non fermented foods. Microorganisms in foods: bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Microorganisms as indicators of process and contamination. Pro-technological microorganisms, modifiers, pathogens. Modifying microorganisms: food degradation. Pathogenic microorganisms: pathogenesis. Infections and food poisonings: definition. Virulent and toxic factors. Pathogenic microorganisms in foods: Gram – and Gram +. The contamination of foods. Factors which influence the growth of microorganisms in foods: temperature, pH, Aw, potential redox and availability of oxygen, food composition. Microbiology of animal origin food. Microbiology of vegetal origin food.
Michael T. Madigan, John M. Martinko Brock “Biologia dei microrganismi. Microbiologia generale, ambientale e industriale” (2016) Editore: Pearson. ISBN: 889190094X
Giovanni Antonio Farris, Marco Gobbetti, Erasmo Neviani, Massimo Vincenzini “Microbiologia dei prodotti alimentari” (2012) Casa Editrice Ambrosiana ISBN: 978-88-08-18246
The teaching will be carried out through frontal lessons using slides that represent teaching material available online in pdf format for students.Specific lessons aimed to assessing the state of learning will be carried out at the end of each part of the course.
Assessment methods and criteria
For each course (General Microbiology and Food Microbiology) the final examination will be carried out by a written examination with open questions. Each questions will be evaluated in arrange between 18 and 30. The final evaluation will be obtained from the average achieved. The average achieved will be the same or more than eighteen in order to pass the exam