PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge: The main objective of the course is to provide students with
the general criteria useful for an industrial chemical process planning and
with the fundamental concepts that must be taken into account in
designing a plant. To this aim, some industrial chemical processes are
described and analyzed in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic aspects
and are also highlighted the most important technology. Problems
associated with the cost, sustainability and safety of an industrial process
are also discussed.
Applying knowledge and understanding: students will acquire the ability
to analyze thermodynamically and kinetically an industrial process,
highlighting the most important aspects and technological solutions. They
will also acquire concepts related to environmental and economic
sustainability of a process.
Course contents summary
Elements of thermodynamics and kinetics: finding the right operating
conditions (pressure, temperature, contact time) in conducting a
chemical reaction in some examples of industrial processes. Concepts of
yield, conversion and selectivity. Parallel and consecutive reactions. Mass
and energy balances applied to chemical industry. Examples of recycling,
by-pass and purge. Selection and design of a reactor in continuous or
discontinuous operation mode. Multiphase reactions. Use of
homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts in industrial field (examples
from petroleum industry). From laboratory to industry: problems
associated with the scale-up. Importance of availability of raw materials,
sustainability and safety of a chemical plant. Considerations on the
overall costs (fixed and variable) of a process (raw materials, production,separation, purification products, use and/or disposal of by-products,
equipment depreciation, personnel costs, etc..).
The aspects described so far will be illustrated with industrial processes
-Liquefaction of gases. Separation of air gases.
-Hydrogen and syngas.
-Nitrogen and nitrogen compounds: ammonia, hydrazine, nitric acid.
-Sulfur and sulfur compounds: sulfuric acid. Claus process.
-Chloro-alkali industry: chlorine and sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid,
1) "Chimica Inorganica Industriale" Carlo Botteghi (Piccin)
2) "An Introduction to Industrial Chemistry" C. A. Heaton
3) "Organic Chemistry: Principles and Industrial Practice" Mark M. Green,
Harold A. Wittcoff
4) "Principi della Chimica Industriale" Vol. I e II G. Natta, L. Pasquon
The course is composed of 48 hours of lessons, during which students
are guided to the understanding of the basic principles of Industrial
Chemistry. During the lessons the general problems associated with the
conduction of a chemical reaction on industrial scale will be discussed .
The theoretical concepts will be exemplified with some industrial
processes of great importance.
Assessment methods and criteria
Written and oral examination.
Knowledge and understanding of the concepts are verified by a written test and an oral examination. Students who have passed the written test can be admitted to the oral examination.
The student must demonstrate:
1) to understand the industrial chemical processes in all their aspects.
2) to be able to compare and discuss the processes individually and in a critical way: for example, compare a process dated with a more innovative.
3) to use a proper language to describe the processes.
4) to be able to find connections among contents of other courses: for example to explain in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic reaction of an industrial process using the skills acquired in the courses of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Physical Chemistry I.
The material of the course is available on line