Learning outcomes of the course unit
This course will lead the students to develop knowledge and understanding of the basic principles for the correct handling and processing of histologic and cytologic samples. Moreover, thorough knowledge and understanding of the basis of the morphologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular biology techniques ancillary to pathologic diagnosis will be reached. Training period in the laboratories will allow the students to practically apply the acquired theoretical knowledge.
The students will also acquire:
- learning skills to follow the evolution of the technological and instrumental progress in the pathology field, in order to understand and, in case, contribute to the introduction of new technical advances. This may be especially relevant for the molecular biology techniques that are becoming more and more essential in the field of oncologic diagnosis and therapy.
No Si Prerequisiti
Knowledge of the basis of histology and cellular biology, microscopy.
Course contents summary
The first lesson of the course will be focused on the procedures that characterize a Histopathology laboratory, including its organization, software management system, instrumentation and specific measures for safety and damage prevention. The technical FISH, culture cellular and immunoistochemistry will be fully explored.
The second part of the course will be dedicated to laboratories activities of the tecnicians over descripted.
The last part of the course will be focused on the observation by fluorescence microscopy the samples obtened
Organization, software management system and instrumentation of the histopathology laboratory
Types of histologic samples: needle biopsies, endoscopic and surgical biopsies, surgical specimens
Handling of histologic samples: acceptance, gross examination, surgical margins staining, sampling
Tissue fixation, processing, paraffin embedding, sectioning
Intraoperative frozen sections examination
Security and damage prevention measures in Pathologic Anatomy
Routine (haematoxylin-eosin), histomorphologic and histochemical stains
Immunohistochemistry: principles and applications to histopathologic diagnosis
Diagnostic cytology: exfoliative (PAP test), liquid, needle aspiration cytology
Preparation of cytological specimens: smear,, cytocentrifugation; fixation, staining
Molecular biology techniques applied to Pathologic Anatomy:
- FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization): general principles, applications to oncologic pathology (HER2 and Met gene amplification, ALK and ROS-1 gene translocation, 1p19q deletion);
Special stains in histopatology: practical applications
Immunohistochemistry: practical applications
AA.VV. Anatomia Patologica: le basi. A cura di L. Ruco, A. Scarpa. UTET Scienze Mediche, Torino, 2007
AA.VV. Manuale di Tecnica Cito-Istologica. A cura di S. Daniel, T. Zanin.
Documentazione Scientifica Editrice (DSE), Bologna, 1997
PDF files of the Power Point slides presented during the course
The course will be based on frontal teaching: attendance to at least 70% of the classes will be mandatory. At the end of each lesson, the PDF file of the Power Point slides will be uploaded and published online in the dedicated university webpage (http://elly.medicina.unipr.it), representing the main didactic material for the exam preparation
Assessment methods and criteria
Achievement of learning outcomes will be verified by means of a final multiple choice test , whose score will be expressed in thirtieth; the minimal threshold to pass the exam will be 18/30, the best mark will be represented by 30/30 “cum laude”. By means of a series of questions touching a wide variety of topics treated during the course, the global level of knowledge and understanding of the theoretical and practical subjects, as well as the ability to logically think and connect related topics, will be verified.