ANALOGUE AND RF MICROELECTRONICS (UNIT 1)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course provides advanced knowledge required for approaching the design of Analog Integrated Circuits and RF circuits (with both MMIC or RFIC techniques).
Elettronica e Strumentazione
Dispositivi a Stato Solido
Course contents summary
Analog integrated circuits design: main differences and peculiarities with respect to discrete-components design.
Passive components in Silicon technologies (resistors, capacitors and inductors): parasitics and lumped models. MOS transistors: main parasitic effects, minimization of the capacitance at the drain terminal; multi-gate devices.
Process tolerance and component mismatch. Interconnection lines: lumped models. Pad, packaging and bonding: models.
Impact of the process tolerance and mismatch on the analog design: corner analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation.
Behavioral modeling of analog cells with Spectre-HDL.
Design of operational amplifier in CMOS technology
Two-stages opamp: basic and advanced Miller compensation techniques. Analysis of non-dominant poles and zeros in the transfer function of basic amplifier stages: cascode and differential amplifier. Folded-cascode opamp. CMRR and PSRR of two-stages opamp.
High-DC gain opamps: gain boosting technique. Low supply voltage opamps, rail-to-rail input opamps.
Output stages: class AB; quiescent current control. Class-C.
Differential output opamps: common-mode feedback and stability issues. Simulation techniques.
Noise sources in single stage amplifier and Miller-compensated two-stages opamps. Noise minimization techniques.
Design of special analog circuits in CMOS technology
Switched-capacitor circuits: sample-and-hold, amplifier and filters.
Voltage and current references: CMOS bandgap reference.
Theory of Analog Circuit Simulators
Analog Simulators: Spice, Spectre.
DC-OP analysis and algorithms: Newton-Rapson method. DC-OP issues and problems: continuation methods, initial condition, multiple operating points. Accuracy parameters: reltol, vntol and abstol
Transient analysis: integration methods: Euler, Trapezoidal, Gear2; how integration methods affects the simulation results. Accuracy parameters: lteratio, transient convergence criteria (pointlocal, sigglobal, etc.), maximum time-step.
Design of an analog circuit in CMOS technology (opamp, bandgap reference, etc.) using Cadence as CAD framework and Spectre as Simulator.
B. Razavi, ``Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits'', Mc Graw Hill
P. E. Allen, D. R. Holdberg , "CMOS Analog Circuit Design", 2nd edition, Oxford University Press
K. S. Kundert, “The Designer's Guide to Spice and Spectre”, Kluwer Academic Publ.
The exam comprises an oral part and two designs:
-an analog macro (opamp, bandgap, etc.) to be designed with Cadence
-a LNA to be designed with Agilent ADS
Design report and cadence database for the Analog IC design part and a report on the design Activity with ADS for the RF Electronics part have to be provided to the Professor before accessing to the exam;
The oral part, if preferred, may be split in two parts: Analog IC design and RF Electronics.