# CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The course aims at providing a general view of Condensed Matter Physics with focus on crystal systems. Structural and thermal properties of solids, electronic states and the main effects due to electron-electron interactions, namely magnetism and superconductivity, are described.

## Prerequisites

Basic knowlwdge of:

-Statistical Mechanics

-Quantum Mechanics

-Atomic And Molecular Physics

## Course contents summary

- Crystal Structure and Crystal Binding

- Crystal Dynamics and Thermal Properties

- Energy Bands

- Semiconductors

- Metals

- Insulators

- Surface and Interface Physics

- Magnetism

- Superconductivity

## Course contents

Crystalline Structures and interatomic forces.

Periodic atomic structures, classification of crystal lattices, diffraction techniques for crystallography: X-rays, electrons, neutrons, Bragg condition and Laue equation, reciprocal lattice and Brillouin zones, classification of Bravais lattices, Van der Waals forces, ionic bonding, covalent bonding, metallic bonding, hydrogen bonding, elastic constants.

Atomic dynamics in crystals and thermal properties.

Lattice vibrations in crystals, quantization of lattice vibrations, and phonon density of states, inelastic scattering by phonons and measurement of the dispersion curves, thermal properties: heat capacity, anharmonic effects, thermal conductivity.

Electronic states in solids

Beyond the free electron model, electronic levels in a periodic potential, Bloch theorem, electrons in a weak periodic potential, "tight-binding” model , classification of crystalline solids: metals, insulators and semiconductors.

Semiconductors

electrons and holes, donor and acceptor states, transport properties (Hall effect, cyclotron resonance), thermoelectric effects, optical properties.

Metals

energy bands in metals and Fermi surface, methods for the experimental determination of the Fermi surface

Insulators

dielectrics, ferroelectrics, soft-modes and structural transitions, optical processes, excitons.

Interfaces and low-dimensional systems

Surface electronic states, quantum Hall effect, pn junctions, heterostructures, semiconductor devices: LEDs, lasers, electronic structure of low dimensional systems.

Magnetism in solids

diamagnetism and paramagnetism, ferromagnetic order, antiferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic, spin waves, magnetic domains, resonance techniques: EPR, NMR, NQR, Mössbauer, magnetic resonance imaging.

Superconductivity

phenomenology of superconductors, superconducting type I and II, the theory of superconuttività: London equations and BCS theory, Josephson effect.

## Recommended readings

- Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th Edition - C. Kittel (2005 - John Wiley & Son)[Italian Edition: Editore: CEA 2800]

- Solid State Physics , - N.W. Ashcroft, N.D. Mermin (1987 - Mc Graw Hill)

- Solid State Physics - H. Ibach, H. Lüth (2003 - Springer

- Oxford Master Series in Condensed Matter Physics (Vols. 1 – 5),(Oxford University Press - ultima ristampa 2010)

## Teaching methods

Lectures (about 55% of the total time)

Class exercises (about 45% of the total time) carried out with the teacher supervision

## Assessment methods and criteria

During the course, each student (or each small group of students) will have to solve three sets of problems in form of homework (approximately once a month). The results are due (preferably by e-mail) within two weeks from the assignment; 20% will be deducted from problem sets that are handed in late.

The students attending regularly and actively the course will have to take two written test (a mid-semester one and a second one at the end of the semester). For these tests no books, notes, calculators and electronic devices (PC, tablets, smartphones) are allowed.

Grades:

Homeworks: 35%

Tests: 65%

Alternatively each student can ask to take his exam in a traditional form, namely a written test followed by an oral examination.

All students must register in due time for the exam sessions at the ESSE3 web-site