Learning outcomes of the course unit
The training module is designed to provide the fundamental knowledge and understanding about the biochemical processes that characterize the food and nutrition in the human body. In this context, they expose the chemical - physical characteristics and product of nutrients and the main classes of foods, the nutritional characteristics of foods and fictional properties and protection. It also addresses the fundamental aspects of preventive dietary consistently with the provisions with the provisions contained in the Guidelines recently issued National Guide. Throughout the module are provided food safety investigations, to reinforce the normative content processed in general education also dedicated to the discussion of the methodology and specific tools of inspection control in food hygiene.
Knowledge of biology, chemistry and biochemistry.
Course contents summary
The first lessons concerning general topics such as nutrition in today's society, man's interaction with the food, the general principles of food science and human nutrition. The second part of the course is devoted to discussion of the constituent elements of dietetics including the study of all the nutrients, their biochemical and nutritional properties, their specific functions at the level of human nutrition. The third part of the module addresses the complex issue of food security combined with nutrition security, included in the current regulatory environment, national and EU.
The lessons of the form of "Hygiene of Nutrition and Food Safety" (1004880) have treated and studied the following areas:
1. Introduction and general information on nutrition and nutrition. The risk factors in public health and the prevention of obesity. The nutrients or nutrients: macro and micronutrients. The RDAs; Caloric requirements and approach to the Energy Expenditure: Measuring methods and factors that influence it. The macronutrients: Carbohydrates i, chemical - physical characteristics, classification, nutritional properties, requirements; monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides, sugar alcohols. The Dietary Fiber. Vitamins: chemical - physical and nutritional properties, classification and requirements; water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins.
2. Functional groups of biomolecular interest; The Lipids: generalities and classification. The saponifiable lipids: fatty acids. The main fatty acids, notes on stereoisomery position and geometric. The nomenclature of fatty acids. The essential fatty acids. The acylglycerols and their function. Phospholipids, the phosphatidylcholines, the sphingolipids, Glycolipids and the respective functions, Steridi and Cholesterol. Lipids Unsaponifiables: generalities and classification; The corticoids and sex hormones, eicosanoids. The functions of lipids and their nutritional properties, digestion and absorption. Lipoproteins.
3. Amino acids and proteins. chemical characteristics and functions. The protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Classification of proteins. The nitrogen cycle. The biological value of protein. Nutritional properties, the protein requirement. The mineral salts and trace elements: the nutritional properties, requirements and dietary sources. Introduction to food and nutrition security: food safety and food security. Fortified foods, enriched and supplementary foods "light" and food supplements. The "Novel Food" (Reg. EC n. 258/97). Introduction to food toxicology: the most important categories of food contaminants (nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines, PAHs, products of oxidation of fats), the Endocrine Disrupters.
4. Food safety: general information on EU Regulations. Deepening of Regulation (EC) No. 852/04 with detailed study of Annex II. Self-control in food hygiene according to the HACCP system and simplified. The risk categorization: deepening of the Regional Technical Protocol of 22/11/12. Case study: the inspection report (SCU) in use at the SIAN - AUSL of Parma, skills SIAN and data related activities year 2014. The Departmental Plan for the "Food Security" - AUSL of Parma - Year 2015. Notes on the DGR n. 200 of 02/25/13 concerning the guidelines for the exercise of supervisory and control function.
5. The official food control: careful study of the Regulation (EC) No. 882/04 on the official control of food hygiene. The most significant contents of the regulatory text. Study of types and rules for the implementation of inspection and techniques in use. Deepening of Audit technique for the official control of OSA in relation to the phases, to conduct procedures and return the results. Examination of the EC Regulation no. 178/02 with particular regard to the most significant contents of the legal provisions, the scope, the general requirements for food, traceability and consequent obligations, the rapid alert system for food and feed, the Crisis Unit of the Health Company . Mentions of the European Agency for Food Safety Authority (EFSA).
1. Bibliographic Updates AME - Association of Italian Doctors Endocrinologists; 2. Diseases of the endocrine system and metabolism (G. Faglia, 2013); 3. Manual Applied Nutrition (Riccardi - Pacioni, 2013); 4. Textbook of Endocrinology - 12th Edition - 2012 (Williams); 5. Food Chemistry (Cappelli - Vannucchi, 2005); 6. Food and Human Nutrition (Cannella - Mariani Costantini, 2006), 7. Prevention and dietary therapy (E. Del Toma, 2005); 8. The molecular basis of Nutrition (G.Arienti); 9. Guidelines for healthy eating Italian - INRAN, 2003; 10. Principles of Biochemistry (A.L.Lehninger); 11. Statement Community of the "hygiene package"; 12. Regional Document on risk categorization for the official control on foodstuffs (2012).
In relation to the training objectives spelled out above, the teaching of the course is conducted through the realization of lectures carried out with the aid of slides and texts; similarly, in the course of the teaching, the students are invited to participate in seminars of particular issues. During the lessons, also they face off discussions regarding the general criteria for the development of some macro thematic areas being curricular teaching.
Assessment methods and criteria
The learning outcomes are assessed by administration of a questionnaire to multiple responses which aims to ensure the attainment of knowledge and understanding of all the contents of the training module; the written test, possibly, can be combined with additional check, oral, that is after request of the candidate. Moreover, it is allowed to take the exam choosing the oral exam only.
The student at the end of the course, using the knowledge of biology, chemistry, biochemistry previously acquired, will highlight knowledge and understanding in relation to the biochemistry of nutrition and human nutrition, the nutrients and their use to ' interior of the intermediary metabolism processes, the functional and nutritional properties of foods, to genrali principles of preventive and applied dietetics. The student also through knowledge and understanding also exercised in group activities, will have to identify the critical elements related to analysis and risk assessment in food hygiene, process the basic criteria for the performance of official control including the use of appropriate documentation.