INTRODUCTION TO THE PHYSICS OF MATTER
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To provide both the phenomenology and the conceptual basis of modern physics, from elementary particles to condensed matter. To develop the ability to solve simple probblems applying the simplest classical, semiclassical or quantum approach, i the spirit of back-of-the-envelope calculations,
The course makes use of Classical Physics in the solution of simple problems. Working knowledge of mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism and optics are necessary.
Course contents summary
Part I: nuclei, particles and atoms
Part II: molecules, condensed matter,
See the detailed content in the syllabus of the two parts.
1. Introduction, phenomenology of the nuclei.
2. Four experiments: Rutherford scattering, the proton, Chadwick and the neutron, Hofstadter and nuclear dimensions.
3. Binding energy, the drop model, the Yukawa model.
4. α,β,γ decays, transmutation, introduction to the nuclide chart, NMR, effetto Mössbauer.
5. The Fermi gas, Fermi distribution, identical particles and the Pauli principle, vector model of angular momentum addition.
6. Shell model, even-even, odd-oddo, even-odd and odd-even nuclei.
7. Fusion, fission, chain reaction, nuclear bomb, nuclear reactors, the Tokamak.
8. Nuclide chart, II part, and the valley of stability, nucleosynthesis.
9. Particles: leptons, hadrons (mesons and barions). The positron, the pione and the muon.
10. An example of quantum angular momentum: Pauli matrices, eigenstates and eigenvectors, cummutation rules, lowering and raising matrices.
11. Dirac equation, the Dirac see and antimattter.
12. QED, weak interactions, Fermi theory, Glashow, Weinberg e Salam theory, the W± and the Z0.
13. QCD and the standard model, the Higgs mechanism.
14. Astroparticles (seminar by Massimo Pietroni)
15. Complete chronology, μSR.
16. Franck-Hertz experiment, non relativistic hydrogen, hydrogenoid atoms, Stern-Gerlach and Zeeman experiments.
17. First paper.
18. Relativistic hydrogen, spin, spin-orbit coupling and the fine structure, the hyperfine structure.
19. Helium, screening and the variational method.
20. Helium: spin, exchange, ortho- and para-helium, noble gas and alcaline atoms, quantum defect.
21. Boron to Neon atoms, Hund's rule.
22. Many electrons: the self-consistent field, Hartree, Hartree-Fock approximations and the density fucntionals (outline).
23. Optical selection rules, non relativistic "second quantization", optical spectroscopy.
24. X ray, Auger and fotoelectron spectroscopies.
25. Cold atoms (seminar by Sandro Wimberger)
27. Second paper.
Eisberg Resnik Quantum Physics, John Wiley, 1985 (Ch. 15,16,17,8,9,10) and Alonso Finn Fundamental Physics, Quantum Physics, Addison Wesley, 1968 (Ch. 7,8,9,3,4),
Lectures, seminars, tutoring and homeworks
Assessment methods and criteria
Two written papers par part. Homeworks are grades and concur to the final marks. Optional oral integration. Possibility to take the exam just by one complete paper per part plus an oral exam.