FUNDAMENTALS OF CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The module of Chemical Basics is a part of the Integrated Course of Chemical Basics and Mechanisms of Risk Factors. The module aims to provide students a solid knowledge and understanding of the fundamental principles of chemistry. It develops students' critical thinking skills by solving the exercises also in order to allow the student the ability to use the knowledge and understanding gained in identifying chemical problems in the field of Health Sciences.
The module starts from the basic concepts of General Chemistry.
Course contents summary
The module can be divided into three parts. The first part covers topics of General Chemistry on elementary substances and chemical compounds, periodic table, chemical symbols of the elements, the definition and application of oxidation number, nomenclature of inorganic compounds and rules for balancing redox reactions and not redox. The second part concerns the structure of the atom, chemical bonding, and physical states of matter. The third and last part is the solutions, the chemical equilibrium, the buffer solutions and the pH.
Elementary substances and chemical compounds. Periodic Table. Chemical symbols of the elements. Chemical phenomena and physical phenomena. Chemically homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The mixtures. Dalton's atomic theory. The atom as the fundamental unit of matter, through which chemical transformations occur. Lavoisier's law. The definition of mass and weight. The principle of Avogadro. Mass and atomic weight. The scale of atomic weights. Molecular Weight. Chemical formulas: quality and quantity information. Atomic mass units. Chemical symbols and formulas. Fundamental subatomic particles: proton, neutron and electron. Atomic number (Z) and mass number.
Definition and application of oxidation number. The oxidation numbers of the elements. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds: oxides and hydroxides. Preparation of hydroxides. The peroxides, basic oxides and anhydrides. IUPAC nomenclature, Stock and traditional for oxides, hydroxides and anhydrides. Acids and hydracids (IUPAC and traditional nomenclature) and oxoacids (traditional nomenclature). The salts and the reactions of salification: reactions of simple exchange and double exchange.
Rules for balancing redox and not redox reactions. Acidic and Basic substances. Equations: molecular and ionic equations.
Structure: electrical nature of matter, particle nature of electricity. Atomic model of Thomson and Rutherford. Isotopes and isobars. Elettromegnetica radiation. Planck Theory. Bohr atom. Dualism of wave - particle (De Broglie). Uncertainty principle of Heisenberg. Atomic orbitals and quantum numbers. Polyelectronic atoms. Aufbau: Hund's Rule and the Pauli exclusion principle. Periodic Table. Periodic properties: first ionization energy and electron affinity. Electronegativity. Metals and non-metals.
The chemical bond. Ionic and covalent bonding. Lewis theory. Octet rule. Expansion of the sphere of valence. Polar and non-polar covalent bond. Dative covalent bond. Calculation of the percentage of ionic character of a bond. Molecular geometry. VB theory or valence bond. Hybridization (e.g. carbon: sp3, sp2, sp). Weak bonds. Van der Waals forces: dipole-dipole forces, dipole forces - induced dipole, dipole forces instant - instant dipole. Hydrogen bond. Paramagnetic and diamagnetic molecules.
States of matter. Gaseous state. Equation of state of an ideal gas. Ideal gas laws: Boyle's law, Gay-Lussac I °, II ° Gay-Lussac, the Law of Dalton on gas mixtures. Real gases. Liquid state: Properties. Surface tension, evaporation, vapor pressure, boiling point. Changes of state. The solutions: dilute and concentrated. Ways to express the composition of a solution (% weight / weight; % weight / volume; % volume / volume; molarity, molality, ppm; ppb; molar fraction). Density of a solution. Dissolution of a solid ion in water. Solubility. Factors affecting solubility.
Ideal solutions. Raoult's law. Colligative properties of solutions. Strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes. Osmotic pressure. Colligative properties of electrolyte solutions. Solid state: crystalline solids and amorphous solids. Polymorphism and isomorphism. Comparison between diamond and graphite. Types of chemical transformations. Chemical equilibrium: the equilibrium constant. Mobile principle of balance.
Effect of change of temperature on the equilibrium constant. Factors affecting the position of equilibrium. Heterogeneous equilibria and solubility equilibria (solubility product constant). Acids and bases: Arrhenius theory, theory of Bronsred-Lowry, Lewis theory. The strength of acids and bases. Leveling effect of the water. Henderson-Hasselbach equation. The ionic product of water. The pH of a solution. Indicators. The pH measurement. pH values for some solutions. Buffer solutions. Hydrolysis. Conjugate acid-base pair. Relationship between Ka, Kb, Kw a pair acid conjugate base. Electrochemistry: electrolytic and galvanic cells. Total electromotive force: the electrode potential. Electrochemical series of the elements. Kinetics. Reaction rate. Factors affecting the rate of a reaction. Collision theory. Activation energy. Effect of temperature on the rate of a reaction. Catalysts, enzyme catalysis.
Nomenclature of inorganic compounds.
Reactions for the preparation of Salts, Acids and Hydroxides.
Stoichiometry and limiting reagent.
Ground state electronic configurations of the atoms of the elements.
Balancing redox reactions in molecular and ionic form.
Concentrations of the solutions; density of the solutions; dilutions of the solutions. Relations between solubility Salts and Kps.
pH and pOH of strong and weak acids.
Franco Ugozzoli, LEZIONI DI CHIMICA, Edizioni Santa Croce.
During the lectures, teacher will discuss the general issues related to the different topics of General Chemistry processed (see Extended Program). The module will be supported by exercises of chemical stoichiometry and in particular the calculation of the concentrations of the solutions and related topics. The exercises will be conducted initially on the blackboard by the teacher and then by the students themselves. These planned activities will enable students to create the solutions of the problems outlined during theoretical lessons.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the module includes an oral exam with written exercise that concerns the solution of stoichiometric and nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Through questions on the topics covered in the course, the knowledge and understanding of the content will assess for students. By the resolution of a problem and stoichiometric balance of inorganic reactions, it will be determined whether the student has achieved the goal of the ability to apply the acquired knowledge.