Physiology of Domestic Animals
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To provide fundamental knowledge on animal physiology
Course contents summary
PRINCIPLES OF THE GENERAL CELL PHYSIOLOGY. Cell physiology, Homeostasis.
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:. Excitable tissues: nerve cells. The synapsis. resting potential and action. Synaptic and junctional transmission. Neurotransmitters. The sense organs and receptors: classification, coding of sensory information. The chemical senses: taste and smell. Physiology of hearing and vision. The somatic nervous system. Function of conduction, reflex and trophic of the spinal cord. Brainstem and cranial nerves. Cerebellum and its relationship with the segmental brain. Regulation of muscle tone, balance and voluntary movement. Thalamus and the cerebral hemispheres. The hypothalamus and the limbic system. Cerebral cortex. Autonomic nervous system: sympathetic and parasympathetic branches and their emergency. Similarities and differences between vegetative and somatic reflex arc. Neurochemical transmission.
THE MUSCOLARY SYSTEM: striated and smooth muscle cells, myocardium,
neuromuscular transmission. Role of Ca + +. Electrical stimulation and contractile response. Simple contraction and tetanus. Heat production in muscle. Fundamentals of biomechanics. The smooth muscle: mechanical, electrophysiological, nervous and humoral control.
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Conformation of the alimentary canal and digestion in different animal species. Endocrine and nervous regulation of the secretory activity of digestive glands of the alimentary canal. Gastrointestinal motility in monogastrics and polygastrics. Biochemistry and microbial flora, ruminal volatile fatty acid absorption and their metabolic fate. Absorption of end products of digestion, water and electrolytes in the small intestine.
ENDOCRINOLOGY: hormones and their function. TheNeuro-endocrine control.
REPRODUCTION: Reproduction physiology: puberty, oestrus, placenta and its functions, pregnancy, childbirth determinism.
PHYSIOLOGY OF LACTATION: Lactation physiology in raising breast, lactogenesis, milk ejection, metabolic and environmental aspects.
RENAL PHYSIOLOGY The kidney function and the mineral bilance of the organism
THE FISIOLOGY OF CARDIOCIRCULATORY SYSTEM: The cardiac muscle: cardiac innervation, conduction tissue, cardiac electrophysiology
Cellular physiology (times of lesson 4) the concept of omeostasi. The structure and the functions of the cells. The transport of the substances through the cellular membranes. The cellular metabolism. The potential of membrane and the potential of action. The transmission sinaptica, the neurotrasmettitoris and the cellular receptors.
The Blood. The principal characteristics of the blood, The plasmatic proteins, the red globules, Resistance of the organism to the infections, the immunity. Emostasi and coagulation of the blood. The blood groups.
The Central Nervous System is Peripheral (times of lesson 6).
Organization, protection and nutrition of the central nervous system
The hormones: GH, IGF,Insulin, Glucagon, somatostatin, melatonin, prolactin, tiroid hormones, oxitocyn, ADH, Aldosterone, cortusol,
The reproductive system, The hormones that controls oestrus cycle. Physiology of estrous cycle, estrus, insemiantion, pregnancy, parturition, The post partum.
The kidney and the control of omeaostasys. The respiratory system, The cardiocircolatory system. The cotrol d acid-basyc balance.The mammary gland. The stress and its control.
Materials from lesson, Articles from Journal ,Siaastad, K. Hove, O. Sand: Physiology of Domestic Animals, 2nd Edition, Scandinavian Veterinary Press,
• Gobetto, Pelagalli, Anatomia e Fisiologia degli Animali Domestici, UTET
• Guyton, A. Trattato di Fisiologia Medica,.C., PICCIN, Padova.
• Cunningham,J.G., Texbook of Veterinary Physiology, Saunders Company, USA.
• Duke's, Physiology of Domestic Animals, Melvin, J.S., Cordell University press.
• De Rensis Fisiologia degli Animali domestici
• Eckert R, Fisiologia animale, Zanichelli, Bologna.
• Moruzzi G. Fisiologia della vita di relazione, UTET, Torino.
• Gordon Fisiologia Animale Piccin
• Schmidt Nielsen Fisiologia Animale Piccin
frontal lessons, practical lessons and observations on field
Assessment methods and criteria
Written and oral exam.
Test during the course.