Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course will provide basic information needed to understand
causes and mechanisms underlying the main pathologic processes at cell,
tissue and organismic levels. Notions will be applied to biotechnological approaches to relevant human
availability of bibliographic resources will be used to develop capability of
making judgements, communication and learning skills.
Bases of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Cell Biology are required.
The acquisition of CFU on these subjects is strongly recommended for a fruitful frequence to the Course.
Course contents summary
- Cell injury and death, cell and tissue adaptation
- Genetic disease
- Examples of metabolic disease
1) Cell injury and death, cell and tissue adaptation:
- Cell injury: oxidative and ER stress, intracellular and extracellular accumulations
- Ischemic/hypoxic stress
- Cell death: necrosis, apoptosis, other modalities
- Tissue adaptations: atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia
2) Genetic disease: - Mutations and their phenotypic effects
- Mendelian disorders (autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive, X-linked)
- Non-mendelian disorders (mitochondrial diseases, genomic imprinting, triplet expansion, multifactorial diseases)
- Chromosomal aberrations
- Nomenclature and classification
- Benign and malignant tumors
- Molecular oncology: the molecular control of the cell cycle and death, protooncogenes and oncosuppressors, the genetic control of DNA repair
- Causes of tumours: chemical, physical, biological
- The neoplastic phenotype: invasivity, metastasis, angiogenesis, metabolic alterations
4) Examples of metabolic disease:
- Kumar, Abbas, Fausto, Aster- Robbins e Cotran – Le basi patologiche
delle malattie, 8 ed. Elsevier-Masson
- Parola Patologia Generale
Specific bibliographic references will be provided during the lessons
Oral interactive lessons, supported by iconographic material that will be
made availble to the students. Lessons will present the main conceptual
frame of each subject, summoning questions or doubts from the
audience and indicating bibliographic references for in-depth study of the
Assessment methods and criteria
No interim evaluation is scheduled.
The final evaluation will consist in an oral examination.
Q u e s t i o n s / s t u d e n t : 2 (from two d i f f e r e n t e x a m i n e r s , o n e
q u e s t i o n / e x a m i n e r; one question will be on a subject chosen by the student).
Questions will consist in the headings listed in the detailed program.
No answer to one question, or the verified uncapability to define
correctly the subject of the question , will prevent the successful completion of the exam.
After each question, the examiner will give an evalaution expressed in marks:
A. Very good knowledge and understanding. Very good capability of
applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 30/30.
B. Good knowledge and understanding. Good capability to apply
knowledge to biomedical problems. Corresponding to 27-29/30.
C. Average knowledge and understanding. Average capability of
applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 24-26/30.
D. Sufficient knowledge and understanding. Sufficient capability of
applying information to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 21-
2 3 / 3 0 .
E. Barely sufficient knowledge and understanding (with evident pitfalls).
Scarce capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems.
Corresponding to 18-20/30.
Full marks with laude will be reserved to students exhibiting, together an
overal evaluation of 30/30, capability of making judgments and good
communication ability and autonomous learning skills.
The final vote will be decided jointly by the examiners, who will have the
possibility to decide a vote not higher or lower than three grades from
the best or the worst vote derived from the mean of the two individual