Learning outcomes of the course unit
The aim of the course is to give the basic knowledge on the theory of Fluid Machinery, both as stand-alone units and as Power Systems components. Students will be provided with fundamentals required for the understanding of most important energy conversion processes, which will be then used in the analysis of the most widely used power plants.
A basic knowledge of fundamentals of Mathematics, Physics Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics is required.
Course contents summary
Fossil and renewable energy sources.
Power Systems and Fluid Machinery.
Thermodynamics. Gas and vapours. Mass, energy, momentum conservation equations.
Work done by fluid systems in rotating ducts. Hydraulic energy.
Energy from fossil fuels. Thermodynamic cycles. Conversion efficiencies in power plants. Cost of energy.
Turbomachinery working on compressible fluid. Mass flow rate in nozzles. Compression and expansion. Axial turbines. Compressors and pumps. Steam plants.
Internal combustion engines.
Energy demands in Italy and in the world. Fossil and renewable energy sources. Power Systems and Fluid Machinery: characteristics and classification.Thermodynamics: 1st and 2nd law. Gas and vapours. Mass, energy, momentum conservation equations and their applications. Work done by fluid systems in rotating ducts: radial and axial turbomachinery. Hydraulic energy: storage and run of river hydro-plants. Hydraulic turbines: Pelton, Francis and Kaplan turbines. Energy from fossil fuels: combustion processes and fuel properties. Mass balance, combustion products composition, fuel/air ratio. Thermodynamic cycles. Conversion efficiencies in power plants, overall efficiency and specific fuel consumption. Cost of energy and utilisation coefficient. Turbomachinery working on compressible fluid. De St.Venant equation, compressibility effects and dynamic pressure, Hugoniot equation, Mach number, ideal and real nozzles and diffusers. Mass flow rate in nozzles. Compression and expansion: representation on thermodynamic diagrams, efficiencies. Expansion in a stage of an axial turbine: enthalpy changes in stator and rotor, reaction degree, velocity triangles. Compressors and pumps: fundamentals. Characteristic curves. Steam plants. Fundamentals: thermodynamic cycles, Rankine and Hirn cycles (superheated). Steam generators: fundamentals and layouts, efficiency of the steam generator, superheaters, air pre-heaters. Condensers and cooling towers. Thermal regeneration and regenerative cycles.Gas turbines: fundamentals, thermodynamic cycles (ideal and real), efficiency and specific work, cycle optimisation. Combustion chamber and air/fuel ratio. Turbine inlet temperature (TIT): effects on the efficiency, blade cooling, materials and alloys.Internal combustion engines: fundamentals, ideal thermodynamic cycles, power output. Brake mean effective pressure (bmep). Volumetric efficiency. Characteristic curves.
O.Acton, C.Caputo, Macchine a fluido, vol.1, "Introduzione allo studio delle Macchine", UTET, 1979.
O.Acton, C.Caputo, Macchine a fluido, vol.2, "Impianti Motori", UTET, 1992. O.Acton, Macchine a Fluido, vol.3, "Turbomacchine", UTET, 1990. G.Ferrari, "Motori a Combustione Interna", Il Capitello, 2016. C.Caputo, "Gli impianti convertitori di energia", Masson, 1989. C.Caputo, "Le turbomacchine", Masson, 1989.
Lectures and numerical examples on course subjects.
Assessment methods and criteria
Written and oral examination. Final evaluation is based on a written exercise on numerical examples and an oral examination.
Attendance to the course lectures and to the presentation of numerical examples is highly recommended.