GENERAL PATHOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY
LEARNING OUTCOMES OF THE COURSE UNIT
The objectives of course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding the mechanism of proliferation and cell death and their alteration in the biology of tumours, the pathogenesis of some human genetic and metabolic diseases with their related essential notions of semeiotic and medical terminology. The mechanism of innate and specific immune system, the pathogenesis of the main immunopathologic diseases, the ABO blood and the rhesus (Rh) blood groups, and problems related to blood transfusion. The course allows the student to apply the knowledge gained in the context of biomedical laboratory.
COURSE CONTENTS SUMMARY
General alteration of growth and death, cellular and molecular oncology with particular emphasis on tumour diagnosis in the laboratory practise. Genetic and metabolic diseases and general physiopathology. Blood and Hematopoiesis and components of Innate and acquired immune system. General features of acute and chronic inflammation and immunopathology. Immunoemathology and transfusional medicine.
Parola M. “Patologia Generale” EDISES
Pontieri G.M. “Elementi di Patologia Generale” III edizione PICCIN
Pontieri G.M. Patologia generale e Fisiopatologia generale. III edizione PICCIN
ASSESSMENT METHODS AND CRITERIA
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts. Using the knowledge also acquired in other courses the student must demonstrate knowledge and understanding about the etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases with their related essential notions of semeiotic and medical terminology and about the generality of immune system, immunopathology and immunoemathology.
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Definition, nomenclature, and biological properties of benign and malignant neoplasms. Molecular basis of cancer. Protooncogenes, oncogenes. Tumor suppressor genes. Diagnosis and biological basis of anti-neoplastic therapies.
Transmission patterns of single-gene disorders (Familial hypercholesterolemia, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease).
Atherosclerosis, trombosis, angina and myocardial infarction. Diabetes mellitus
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Stem cells.
Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Vaccinations. Hypersensitivity. Immunologic tolerance and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Transplantation. Immunodeficiency
General features of acute and chronic inflammation
ABO blood groups and serum antibodies. The rhesus (Rh) blood groups. Other blood groups. Haemolytic disease of the newborn.
Basic knowledge on the taking of a blood sample and fitness of donors.
Blood components and plasma by-products: properties, directions for use, preparation procedures and preservation.
Complications following blood transfusion and their handling