Learning outcomes of the course unit
The target of the course is to allow the student to know and to understand the essential elements of the tissues and organs structure. The student will utilize knowledge and understanding for Anatomy and Physiology future study.
At the end of the course the student will demonstrate knowledge and understanding about: Cell structute and organization, Tissue structure and organization, Multi tissutal units structure and organization.
Course contents summary
In the first part of the course will be developed the functional and structural aspects of living substance and its capability of aggregations to form cells. Successively will be illustrated the structural and functional aspects of the different cells. In the second part of the course will be analyzed the modality of development of the cells toward the embryonic development. In the third part of the course the structural and functional aspects of the different tissues will be analyzed together with their capacity of aggregation on form multi tissue units and organs.
The cell. Chemical and physical aspects. biological properties
The extracellular matrix. Chemical and physical aspects. Biological properties. Morpho-functional
The cell as a thermodynamic system. The cell system as planned. The cell as a chemical environment. The cell as a physical environment. The bacterial cell. The plant cell. The animal cell
The supracellular units. The fabrics. Organs. The apparatus and systems
Fundamentals of technology. Analytical methods and biochemical methods histochemical investigation. Microscopy investigation of the morphology. The microscopes. Utility and technical limitations of the various microscopes. The histological stable. Preparation of histological stable
Principles of reading a histological preparation
The biomolecules. Morpho-functional aspects and location, humans, water, minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
The supramolecular complexes. Stable supramolecular complexes. Labile supramolecular complexes.
The organs and systems of the cell. The cytoplasmic matrix. The cell periphery. The nucleus. Ribosomal subunits, ribosomes, polysomes and endoplasmic reticulum. The Golgi complex. The complexes endosomal. The vesicles and vacuoles. The peroxisomes. The mitochondria. Centrosome, mitotic spindle and asters
The cell cycle. The mitotic cell cycle. The meiotic cell cycle. Cell cycle kinetics
Cell senescence. The cell death
Somatic cells and germ cells
Stem cells and differentiated cells. The cell populations.
Embryonic development. The stages of development. Differentiation and growth
Morphological aspects of development. The week of development. II week of development. III week of development. IV week of development. II-III months of development. II-III trimester of development. Genetics of morphogenesis
Development of major organ systems and organs
Biological aspects of development. The factors of development. The microenvironment. The induction. The determination. the differentiation
The fabrics definitive. Epithelial tissues. Tropho-mechanical tissues. Muscle tissues. nerve tissue
The annexal tissues. The tissues of the placenta. The tissues of the amniotic sac. The tissues of the yolk sac. The tissues of the umbilical cord. Histophysiology of the attached embryo-fetal
The units pluritessutali. The glands. The mucous membrane of the alimentary canal, the apparatus. respiratory, urinary tract, the genital tract. female and male genital system. The serous membranes. The skin. The productions skin
The blood-vessels and lymphatics. The muscles. The bones. The nerves. The ganglia.
Renato Scandroglio - La porta che apre al mondo della medicina. Corso integrato di citologia, embriologia, istologia. - terza edizione aggiornata e rinnovata del "corso integrato di istologia". - EdiMago, PARMA
MH. Ross, W. Pawlina - Istologia, testo e atlante; Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
A. Stevens, J. Lowe ISTOLOGIA UMANA; Casa editrice Ambrosiana
M. Barbieri, P. Carinci EMBRIOLOGIA; Casa editrice Ambrosiana
Optical Microscope practice for small groups
Assessment methods and criteria
To evaluate the achievement of the estimated goals, an oral examination will be performed. Questions regarding the content of the course will be employed to evaluate the reaching of the knowledge and understanding of the contents: The capacity of recognition of an histological sample will be valuated by means of the observation at the microscope