PHYSIOPATHOLOGY AND CELLULAR PATHOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course will provide advanced information to understand causes and mechanisms underlying the main pathologic processes of humans at cell, tissue and organism levels. The comprehension of the pathophysiological aspects will help to link ethiology and pathogenesis to structural/functional alterations and, hence, to diagnostic approaches, which will be specifically described, and therapy. The availability of bibliographic resources will be used to develop communication and learning skills.
Adequate bases of cell biology, histology, anatomy, biochemistry, immunology, and physiology are required.
Course contents summary
- Injury and adaptative mechanisms of cells and tissues
- Tissue responses to injury: Inflammation, Hemostasis, Repair
- Pathophysiology of endocrine glands and metabolism
1) Cell injury ed adaptation:
- oxidative stress and the relative cell response
- intracellular and extracellular accumulations
- ER stress and UPR
- Ischemic-hypoxic stress and cell response
- Cell death: necrosis, apoptosis, other modalities
- Methods for the study of cell damage and cell death
- Adaptations: atrophy, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia
2) Tissue responses to injury:
- Acute inflammation: events, cells, mediators
- Chronic inflammation, granulomas, fibrosis
- Defects of the inflammatory response
- Excess of the inflammatory response
- Autoinflammatory diseases
- Systemic events in inflammation
- Laboratory methods in inflammation
- Phases of the hemostatic response
- Hemorrhagic disease and DIC
- Laboratory techniques in the study of hemostasis
- Tissue repair and its disorders
3) Disorders of the immune response:
- Laboratory techniques in clinical immunology
- Pathophysiology of the diabetic syndrome
- Pathopgysiology of iron homeostasis
- Pathophysiology of calcium and phosphorus
- Endocrine pathophysiology
- Vinay, Abbas, Aster – Fondamenti di patologia e fisiopatologia. Elsevier-Masson, 2013
References on specific subjects will be provided during lessons.
Oral interactive lessons, supported by iconographic material that will be made availble to the students. Lessons will present the main conceptual frame of each subject, summoning questions or doubts from the audience and indicating bibliographic references for in-depth study of the subject.
Specific arguments will be treated also with the cooperation of specialists in seminars in Italian or English.
Assessment methods and criteria
No interim evaluation is programmed.
The final evaluation will consist in an oral examination.
Questions/student: 2 (from two different examiners, one question/examiner)
Questions will concern subjects listed in the detailed program.
Failure to answer to one question or to define correctly the subject, or very serious mistakes indicative of severe knowledge gaps, will prevent the successful completion of the exam.
After each question, the examiner will give an evalaution expressed in marks:
A. Very good knowledge and understanding. Very good capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 30/30.
B. Good knowledge and understanding. Good capability to apply knowledge to biomedical problems. Corresponding to 27-29/30.
C. Average knowledge and understanding (some mistakes). Average capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 24-26/30.
D. Sufficient knowledge and understanding but with several mistakes. Sufficient capability of applying information to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 21-23/30.
E. Barely sufficient knowledge and understanding (with evident and severe pitfalls). Scarce capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 18-20/30.
Full marks with laude will be reserved to students exhibiting, together an overal evaluation of 30/30, capability of making judgments and good communication ability and autonomous learning skills.
The final vote will be decided jointly by the examiners, who will have the possibility to decide a vote not higher or lower than three grades from the best or the worst vote derived from the mean of the two individual votes.