Learning outcomes of the course unit
The Module of Applied Histopathology is part of the Integrated Course of Laboratory Medicine.
The Module aims to provide basic notions on nomenclature, etiology, physio-pathology and anatomical bases of diseases that have a specific relevance in the professional and recreational practice of sports. These include cerebro-spinal trauma, sudden cardiac death of the athlete and neuro-muscular pathology. The acquired knowledge will enable the student to manage basis issues in prevention, diagnosis and counseling of these disorders.
The student will be asked to integrate the notions provided by the course with previous knowledge in anatomy, physiology and general pathology to the understanding of:
• the basic physio-pathology of cerebral trauma including hemorrhage, edema, brain hypertension, herniation and ischemia;
• the causes, the pathological bases and the clinical features of the main traumatic injuries of brain and spinal cord;
• the etiology, risk factors, pathological manifestations, early symptoms and strategies of prevention of sudden cardiac death of the athlete;
• the causes, the pathology and the laboratory and clinical features of the most common hereditary and acquired diseases of the skeletal muscle and peripheral nerve;
• the differences between myopathies and muscle denervation injuries and their differential diagnosis;
• the role of muscle and peripheral nerve biopsy in the management of neuro-muscular disorders.
At the end of the course, the student will be able to interact with other professional figures in the:
• implementation of strategies to prevent sudden cardiac death in the athlete and in the identification of subjects at risk;
• identification and immediate management of spinal and brain trauma injuries;
• prevention of traumatic brain and spinal injuries in sports;
• screening of subjects with potential neuro-muscular disorders.
Basic notions of anatomy, physiology and general pathology.
Course contents summary
Lessons will discuss relevant issues in: i) the pathology of the brain and spinal cord trauma, in particular sport injuries; ii) the pathology of sudden cardiac death; iii) the diseases of the skeletal muscle and nerve. Emphasis will be given to the relevance of the tissue approach to the study of disease and to the clinical use of muscle and peripheral nerve biopsy.
Traumatic injury of the brain and the spinal cord
• Basic concepts in brain circulation.
• Brain edema.
• Brain concussion and contusion.
• Diffuse axonal injury.
• Brain hemorrhage (epidural, subdural, subarachnoidal e parenchymal).
• Closed spinal trauma.
Sudden cardiac death: epidemiology, etiology and prevention
Pathology of skeletal muscle
• Basic concepts on the neuro-mucolar unit.
• The morphological approach to the study of skeletal muscle and the muscle biopsy.
• Myopathies and muscolar dystrophies.
• Infectious and non-infectious myositis.
• Denervation injury.
Pathology of the peripheral nerve
• The morphological approach to the study of peripheral nerve and the nerve biopsy.
• Neuronal diseases and assonopathies.
• Demyelinating diseases.
• Traumatic injury of the peripheral nerve.
Robbins & Cotran, Pathologic basis of diseases, Elsevier, 8° Ed. (specific chapters).
Rubin, Pathology, Mosby 2006 (specific chapters).
Lessons and seminars will be given during the course. Texts, diagrams, clinical examples and a rich apparatus of gross and microscopic images the student will be used to guide the student into the understanding of the different clinic-pathological entities.
Assessment methods and criteria
An oral interview will be used to assess the reaching of learning targets. Questions will be aimed to assess knowledge and understanding of basic notions and the ability to translate this information into appropriate actions and behaviors in the relevant clinical situations.
The results of the examination will contribute to the final evaluation of the integrated course.