Learning outcomes of the course unit
This course aims to provide the information and the scientific background for the development of knowledge and ability necessary for the comprehension and application of practical aspects of the Clinical Biochemistry in the field of sport sciences.
These knowledge will supply information regarding the dosage of biochemical and clinical parameters in the blood and in the urine useful to control the health of amateur and professional athletes. Moreover will be provided tools for the knowledge, the comprehension and the interpretation of the data obtained in the laboratory of chemical-clinical analysis, and particular attention will be on possible alteration of the metabolism caused by the physical activity and their consequences.
Furthermore the students will practise the strategies applied for the laboratory analysis that are aimed at contrasting the use of prohibited expedients or substances: direct identification, recognition of induced biochemical or metabolic alterations and their identification also outside the laboratory.
There are no obligatory prerequisites, but several topics in Clinical Biochemistry are part of an interdisciplinary science, thus the student needs the basic knowledge in Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Chemistry and Biochemistry
Course contents summary
The first part of the course will concern the study of biological samples to know their characteristics and their possible alterations. This part will be related to the patients preparation for taking the blood sample and to the conservation of the sample itself (pre-analytic variability), in particular will be deepened the aspects concerning the sport and training activities.
In the second part of the course will be supplied the basic knowledge for the comprehension and the use of the most common marker of organs damage and functionality. In particular will be considered the management of the athletes and the main general pathologies: basic biochemical profile, cytolysis indexes, cardiac, muscle-skeletal, hepatic and renal functionality markers, urine analysis, operative strategies in case of laboratory analysis of prohibited substances.
Laboratory medicine with regard to sport and to the doping prevention.
Laboratory tests: definition, typology, request modality.
Biological sample: properties and characteristics.
Pre-analytical and analytical variables affecting the laboratory data, particular attention will be on the Point of care testing (POCT) instrumentation.
Strategy about laboratory investigation of prohibited substances or methods: direct detection or recognition of biochemical alteration induced on the metabolisms.
Basic biochemical analysis profiles.
Markers of muscle damage.
Meaning of the most common Chemical-Clinical parameters, markers of functionality and/or metabolic, organs and tissue damages.
Biological samples and their treatment.
- Kellerman G. Valori anormali di laboratorio. Mc Graw Hill
- S.D.Ferrara. Doping Antidoping –Piccin
Lectures accompanied by visual aids will be used to convey critical information on the topics relating to the course content. Moreover every illustration about Clinical Biochemistry main topics will be followed by the simulation of professional situation relating to different kind of activity (gym, sport society, professional athletes, schools).
If there will be enough time the student will also learn how to use the available databases for an autonomous update about Laboratory Medicine topics and, if possible, little group of students will visit laboratories of Biochemical-Clinical analysis.
Assessment methods and criteria
The final oral examination will be about the topics of the course; the student needs to demonstrate to have understood and to be able to manage the essential meanings of every section of the program. The students will be required to answer questions aimed at verifying the knowledge of the laboratory analysis, of the management of practical situation and of the technical aspects (how to obtain a reliable laboratory data). In each of these situations the level of understanding of each topic will be verified and a final evaluation will be expressed.
The didactic materials (slides, texts besides the suggested ones, different information accessible form the web) used during the lectures, is available for students on request.