OSTEOGENESIS AND CONDROGENESIS: MODELS OF BIOCOMPATILITY IN VIVO AND IN
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course of "Osteocondrogenesys: Models of biocompatibility in vivo and in vitro Mod B" is a part of the integrated course of "Biomaterials and biocompatible synthetic materials." The course aims to enable the student to know and to understand, by means of frontal teaching and student’s own learning, the organogenesis, the general features, the species peculiarities and the biodynamics aspects of the locomotor system, the bone deposition and remodeling dynamics, the standardization of the experimental protocols, the methods for the evaluation of osteointegration., the concepts on tissue engineering and nanomedicine. At the end of the course, the student will demonstrate to know and understand the notions teached on the various topics during the frontal teaching and practical activity, and moreover to know how to apply it for the standardization and for the evaluation of the experimental methods apply in the evaluation of the biocompatibility of bone biomaterials.
Fundamentals of Cytology and Histology.
Course contents summary
The first part of the course focuses on the deepening of knowledge about the locomotor system emphasizing on the embryological development, morphology, biodynamics aspects and considering the species peculiarities. The course then proceeds to deepen the knowledge on the bone tissue and about this topic both the in vitro and in vivo experimental models aimed to evaluate the osteogenic response and the osteointegration will be considered. Then the course addresses to the biomaterials of orthopedic and dental interest, to the legislation on animal experiments highlighting the characteristics of an experimental model and finally to concepts of tissue engineering and of nanomedicine.
Locomotor system: the organogenesis, the general features, the species peculiarities and the biodynamics aspects:
Components of bony tissue.
Histogenesis of bone tissue.
Deposition and remodeling dynamics.
Organizational levels of the bone.
Bone biomaterials of orthopedic and dental interest:
- Tissue engineering and Nanomedicine
Experimental models for evaluation of osteointegration
Notions of legislation on animal experimentation
Methods for the osteintegration evaluation: bone vital markers, polarized light microscopy analysis, histochemical and immunohistochemical reactions, histological stains.
Locomotor system: identification and isolation of single muscles, bone segments and articular components.
Identification of the elements of locomotor system.
Technique for histological processing of samples with implant to study the osseointegration.
Histolgical stains, histochemical and immunohistochemical reactions, particularly focused on bone tissue.
Observation of histological sections by ordinary light, polarizing light and fluorescence optical microscope.
Digitalization and image analysis.
The course material will focus on scientific papers, reviews and experimental protocols provided by the teacher during lectures and on some parts of the texts mentioned here below:
ADAMO S., CARINCI P., MOLINARO M., SIRACUSA G., STEFANINI M., ZIPARO E.: Istologia di V. Monesi, Piccin, Padova.
BARONE R.: Anatomia Comparata dei Mammiferi Domestici Vol. 1 e 2,
König H. E., Liebich H. G.: Anatomia dei mammiferi domestici (Testoatlante a colori), Piccin, Padova.
Merighi A.: Anatomia Applicata e Topografia Regionale Veterinaria, Piccin, Padova.
Cozzi B., Ballarin C., Peruffo A., Carù F.: Anatomia degli animali da laboratorio (Roditori e Lagomorfi), Ambrosiana, Milano.
Mantero S., Remuzzi A., Raimondi Manuela T., Ahluwalia A.: Fondamenti di ingegneria dei tessuti per la medicina rigenerativa, Pàtron, Bologna.
Di Bello C.: Biomateriali – Introduzione allo studio dei materiali per uso biomedico, Pàtron, Bologna.
The course includes theoretical lessons that take place in the classroom and theoretical-practical lessons that take place both in the anatomy's room, both in veterinary anatomy museum and in the microscopy lab. The theoretical and practical lessons provide the division of student in working groups, the number of which depends solely on the ability to allow each student to work independently for the activity.
Assessment methods and criteria
As evaluation tool, the course consider a final exam. It is structured as an oral examination that is based on questions about the contents of the course and on the supporting paper provide by the teacher during the course; during the exam it will be determined whether the student has achieved the goal of knowledge and understanding of the content and the ability to apply the knowledge gained.
The result of the examination is given by the evaluation of the responses to the questions (2 or 3) proposed by the teacher. As an optional, students can support an ongoing testing on the first part of the course (knowledge will be assessed through both the completion of practical activities and an oral questions).
The examination will be completed with the second part, in the exams scheduled, with the definition of the final evaluation.