DRUG RELEASE AND TARGETING
Learning outcomes of the course unit
At the end of the course the student should have acquired knowledge and understanding of controlled release formulation, their composition and how they work, and of targeting strategies.
In particular, the student should:
1. Be able to understand the mechanisms involved in controlled release and targeting of drugs. Know the main controlled release pharmaceutical forms and the main drug targeting strategies. Be able to use the specific language and the correct terminology (knowledge and understanding).
2. Be able to recognize the function of each excipient of a given cosmetic product and the possible interactions among them. Be capable of formulating the main categories of cosmetic products (solutions, creams, lotions, detergents) (applying knowledge and understanding).
3. Be able to communicate the results of scientific studies also to a non-expert audience. Be able to write a formal document, neat, understandable and appropriate for the professional context. Be able to produce a written document morphologically, syntactically and grammatically correct (communication skills).
4. Be able to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of a given controlled release or innovative pharmaceutical form (making judgements).
5. Be able to connect the different subject studied among them and with the basic disciplines. Have the capability of continuous education, through the scientific publications in the field of pharmaceutical technology (learning skills).
Pharmaceutical technology is a pre-requisite.
Course contents summary
The course is divided in three parts. The first one is dedicated to administration routes, pharmacokinetics, basic phenomena such as dissolution and diffusion and to polymers.
The second part is devoted to controlled release dosage forms (reservoir, matrices, osmotic systems etc.).
The third part covers drug targeting, both active and passive.
First part: general
• Pharmacokinetics and IVIVC
Second part: controlled release
• Diffusion controlled systems: reservoir systems at constant and non-constant activity; matrix systems: homogeneous and heterogeneous matrices.
• Chemically controlled systems: biodegradable and bioerodible systems.
• Sistemi attivati dal solvente: osmotic systems, swellable matrices, floating systems.
• Mucoadhesive systems.
• Colon release.
• New administration routes (buccal, nasal, ocular, transdermal)
Third part: drug targeting
• Drug carriers: microparticles, nanoparticles, liposomes, polymeric micelles.
• Targeting strategies: passive targeting, physical targeting, active targeting.
Controlled release of peptides, proteins, nucleic acids.
• P. Colombo, F. Alhaique, C. Caramella, B. Conti, A. Gazzaniga, E. Vidale, Principi di tecnologie farmaceutiche. Editore: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, II Edizione 2015 (in Italian)
• List of bibliography provided (in english)
Textbooks for consultation (available in the library of the Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti e del Farmaco):
• A.T. Florence, D.Attwood, Le basi chimico-fisiche della Tecnologia Farmaceutica, EdiSES, Napoli, 2002 (in english)
The teacher makes available, on a weekly basis, copies of the slides on Elly portal (http://elly.farmacia.unipr.it/) (in Italian)
The course includes lessons, using slide projections, that will be available online for students (elly.saf.unipr.it/2017). Slides are complementary didactic material.
The teacher will recall continuously to the use of the appropriate technical language, will use everyday life examples, will underline connections among different parts of the course and will promote active student participation.
Assessment methods and criteria
The summative evaluation of the knowledge acquired is made through an oral exam (with the only exception of ERSMAUS students which have the possibility to take a written exam).
The exam can be taken, after online enrollment, during the official dates established by the Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti e del Farmaco.
The student should demonstrate to have understood, and to be able to apply, the fundamental concepts of each subject studied. In particular, the evaluation of each module, expressed in thirtieths, will be made on the basis of the following criteria:
1. knowledge and comprehension (theoretical and practical) capability of the subjects studied;
2. Ability to make judgements and to connect the different subject studied among them;
3. communication skills and appropriate use of the technical language;
4. ability to learn and to elaborate the subjects studied.
Up to 2 points will be given for the communication skills of the student.
The results of the exam are communicated right away and published on the portal ESSE3 (https://unipr.esse3.cineca.it/Home.do).
For the ERASMUS students that decide to take a written exam: the exam, duration 1 hour, consists of 5 open answer questions (score for each question varies from 0 to 6 points)
The results of the exam are published on the portal ESSE3 (https://unipr.esse3.cineca.it/Home.do) within one week of the date of the exam. Students can see the exam, by appointment with the teacher.