GEOLOGY AND TERRITORY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The Course provides with lessons the essential knowledge for a correct interpretation of the geological characteristics of a region, in particular those that control the landscape evolution and those that can be seen as Geological Hazard situations.
After attending the first parts of the course the student will be able to apply the knowledge on the Apennines, with field exercises, using a modern geological map.
In field exercises the student can understand the most important geological features of the Apennines and will be able to analyze the outcropping rock units.
The student may also recognizes those particular geological sites that allow geologist to understand the processes of the past and which must therefore be safeguarded and valued as Geological Heritage.
Will finally be understood relations between Geological Landscape and Land Use, highlighting any situations of Geological Hazard that may interfere with the development of settlements and related infrastructure.
Course contents summary
The first part of the Course (3 cfu lessons) covers the main geological features of the Northern Apennines.
The discussion is preceded by a general overview on the origin of rocks, particularlly suitable for graduates biologists.
Is described the lithostratigraphic composition of the major rock sequences of the Northern Apennines and the structural framework related to the Pleistocene modeling of landforms.
It shows the Apennine geological evolution recorded in the rocks, analysing the main sedimentary processes and tectonic deformations, characterizing the Apennine Geological History:
- Oceanic basin
- Convergence phase and accretion
- Ligurian Flysch
- Continental collision and Epi-Ligurian sequence
- Foredeep turbidites
- Neogene thrusting
- Plio-Quaternary orogeny
The rock unit and the sequences most appropriate to recognize these past processes are considered Geological Heritage of the Northern Apennines.
The second part of the Course (1cfu lessons) focuses on Geological Hazard over Northern Apennine area.
- Mass wasting and landslides.
- Earthquake-Related Hazard over Tuscan-Emilian Apennines and Po Plain.
- Relative Vulnerability to pollution of the subsurface water resources.
- Natural Subsidence and Subsidence caused by groundwater extraction over Po Plain area.
The third part of the Course (2 cfu, lessons and field exercises) examines the Geological Landscape in the different situations of the Northern Apennines, distinguished by homogeneity of geological and geomorphological characters:
- Nucleo metamorfico delle Alpi Apuane
- Valli della Lunigiana e della Garfagnana
- Crinale tosco-emiliano
- Dorsale ligure-emiliana
- Versante emiliano
- Margine appenninico padano
The landscape is analyzed with field exercises in some of these situations: the geomorphological evolution is examined and the geological characters from the point of view of Geological Heritage interest and worthy of protection are highlighted.
Are also recognized the main geological hazard situations that can have interactions with settlements and related infrastructures.
- Marshak S., La Terra. Ritratto di un pianeta. Zanichelli, 2004.
- Mattauer M., Messaggi di pietra, Un viaggio attraverso le rocce. Zanichelli 2001.
- Casati P. & Pace F., Scienze della Terra. L’atmosfera, l’acqua, i climi, i suoli. Città Studi, Milano, 1991.
- Guide Geologiche Regionali. Guida 6, L’Appennino ligure-emiliano. BEMA, Milano 1994.
- De Marchi A., Guida naturalistica del Parmense. Graphital Ed., Parma, 1997.
- Roberts J. L., Guida alle strutture geologiche, Muzzio Ed., Padova, 1991.
- Tucker M. E., Sedimentary rocks in the field. Wiley & Sons, 1996.
Slides projected during the lessons
lessons and field exercises
Assessment methods and criteria
Written test after the first part of the course to test geological knowledge acquired.
Final oral examination to test the ability to apply the geological knowledge on the Apennines and the ability to connect the different topics covered in the course.