Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course has been designed to provide fundamental concepts indispensable for understanding the mechanisms and the laws that rule the nature and that underlie the properties of matter, with special emphasis on those aspects useful in the comprehension of chemical and biological processes to better understand the concepts necessary to some of the following biology and chemistry courses. In addition, the course want to give the ability to formulate and solve the problems.
Basic concepts of algebra and calculus.
Course contents summary
Physical quantities and units. Frames of reference and coordinate axes. Vectors.
MECHANICS. Force. Displacement. Velocity. Acceleration. Particular motions. Newton’s laws. Gravity. Relative velocity. Normal force. Friction. Restoring force of a spring. Centripetal force. Uniform and non-uniform circular motion. Law of universal gravitation. Work. Kinetic energy. Potential energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Generalized principle of energy conservation. Power. Linear momentum and its conservation. Impulse. Collisions. WAVES AND OSCILLATIONS. Periodic motions. Simple harmonic motion and its equation of motion. Oscillations due to a spring. Simple pendulum. Waves propagation. Longitudinal and transverse waves. Principle of superposition of waves. Wave energy and intensity. Standing waves. Sound waves. Doppler effect. FLUIDS. Pressure. Stevino’s law. Pascal’s principle. Archimede’s principle. Laminar and turbulent flow. Equation of continuity. Bernoulli’s equation. Torricelli’s theorem. Venturi tube. Poiseuille’s equation. Surface tension.
THERMODYNAMICS. Temperature and thermometric scales. Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Thermal expansion. The ideal and real gas law. Kinetic theory of gases. Real gas. Diffusion and Fick’s law. Heat. Thermal capacity and specific heat. Latent heat and change of phase. Conduction, convection and radiation. The first law of thermodynamics. Isobaric, isochoric, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Cycles. Specific heat at constant P or V for an ideal gas. The second law of thermodynamics. Heat engines and efficiency. Carnot cycle. Entropy.
ELECTROMAGNETISM. Electric charge. Conductors and insulators. Conduction and induction. Coulomb’s law. Electric field. Different kinds of charge distributions and their Electric field. Electric field flow. Gauss law. Electric potential energy. Electric potential. Circuits. Capacitors. Electric current. Resistance. Ohm’s law. Electric power. Joule effect. Magnetic field. Magnetic force. Motion of a charge in a uniform magnetic field. Lorentz’s force. Wires and loops. Ampere’s law. Solenoid. Magnetism in the matter. Magnetic field flow. Faraday’s law of induction. Lenz’s law. Conductor in motion in an uniform magnetic field. Generalization of Ampere’s theorem. Maxwell’s equations in vacuum.
OPTICS. Electromagnetic waves and electromagnetic spectrum. Diffraction. Interference. Geometrical optics. Reflection and refraction. Snell’s law. Total reflection. Plane mirrors. Lens and images forming. Relationship between conjugate points. Lenses’ builders equation.
Serway & Jewett - Principi di Fisica – EdiSES
J.S. Walker – Fondamenti di Fisica – Pearson
Giancoli - Fisica – Ambrosiana
Oral lessons and exercises.
Assessment methods and criteria
Written exam in which both the resolution of problems and the answer to questions about the fundamental physical concepts and principles explained in the oral lessons will be required.
The students can improve the final evaluation with an oral exam.