Learning outcomes of the course unit
At the end of the course, the student should demonstrate, with the use of adequate textbooks, knowledges and ability of comprehension at a level including also the knowledge of some cutting-edge topics in his/her field of studies. Moreover, the student should demonstrate to have developed those learning abilities necessary to undertake future studies with an adequate degree of autonomy.
Sufficient knowledge of biology, anatomy, biochemistry and physiology are needed to address the topics of the course.
Course contents summary
Microbiology (2 CFU): Acquisition of the essential knowledge about the general characters of etiologic agents of infectious diseases (bacteria, fungi, helminths, protozoa, viruses), host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis of infectious diseases, prophylaxis and therapy (notes), drug-resistance mechanisms, nosocomial infections.
General features of prokaryotic cells
- Morphological features of prokaryotic cells
- Structural features of prokaryotic cells (cell wall, external cell membrane, cytoplasmatic cell membrane, nucleus, flagella, pila, capsule and spore)
- Overview on bacterial metabolism and reproduction
Bacterial pathogenic action
- Relationship between bacteria and host
- Bacterial population bacteria normally resident in the human body
- Pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria (adhesins, exoenzymes, exo-and endotoxins)
Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial infectious diseases
- Direct methods: demonstration in the biological material of the bacterium and/or its structural components and their identification. Overview of the main study techniques (collection and transport of the sample, microscopic examination, bacterial culture, identification of the bacterium, rapid molecular methods)
- Indirect methods: demonstration in the infected organism of a specific antibody response (outline on the main methods used)
- Antibacterial drugs (antibiotics and chemotherapeutics) and determination of in vitro susceptibility by bacteria: notes on antibiogram
Main bacteria responsible for infectious diseases in humans
- Staphylococci (S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci)
- Streptococci (Streptococcus group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci)
- Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae
- Outline on Corynebacterium diphtheriae
- Overview on mycobacteria
- Outline on Gram-negative enteric bacteria: Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Campylobacter and Vibrio
- Outline on Clostridium (C. tetani, C. perfringens and C. botulinum)
- Outline on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections: Pseudomonas and S. aureus.
General features of fungi.
The cell and the fungal colony; yeasts and filamentous fungi.
Classification of mycoses; the main human mycoses.
The antifungal drugs.
General Parasitology. Introduction to Medical Parasitology. Parasitism, commensalism, mutualism host-parasite interactions: routes of entry, migration, exit.
Medical Parasitology. Examples of the life cycle of some parasites of medical interest: amoebas, giardia, malaria plasmodia, toxoplasma, pinworms, Trichinella, tapeworms, lice, ticks. Brief examples of appropriate principles and methods for the laboratory diagnosis of infections caused by parasites of medical interest, in order to treat the request, the sampling, transport and storage of biological materials for parasitological investigations.
General Virology. Introduction to Medical Virology. Virus definition, morphology, structure and chemical composition. Quantitative determinations, cultivation, classification of viruses. Virus-cell interactions, relationships virus-host organism; immunoprophylaxis and antiviral therapy.
Medical Virology. Examples of the epidemiology and natural history of viral infections of the respiratory tract, of the intestinal apparatus and annexes, of the genito-urinary tract, of sexually transmitted infections, of prenatal and connate infections, of the infections in the immunocompromised host.
Brief examples of appropriate principles and methods for the laboratory diagnosis of infections caused by viruses of medical interest, in order to treat the request, the sampling, transport and storage of biological materials for virological investigations.
1) M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano.
Microbiologia medica: Batteriologia. Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio. Monduzzi Editore.
2) M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano.
Microbiologia medica: Micologia. Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio.Monduzzi Editore.
3) M. Bendinelli, A. Calderaro, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano. Microbiologia medica: Parassitologia. Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio. Monduzzi Editoriale.
4) M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano.
Microbiologia medica: Virologia. Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio.Monduzzi Editore.
Lectures accompanied by visual aids will be used to convey critical information on the topics relating to the course.
Assessment methods and criteria
The outcomes of learning will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the contents relating to the course will be used to test the knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply the knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts.