Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and
understanding the mechanism of proliferation and cell death, the
mechanism of response to injury (inflammation, hemostasis, tissue
repair), the pathogenesis of some human genetic diseases, the biological
characteristics of the tumors, as well as the essential mechanisms of the
immune response and its alterations, with particular reference to
applications in transfusional medicine and to the aspects of interest in
The course allows the student to apply the knowledge and understanding
gained in the professional future.
Microbiology course is part of the integrated course Pathophysiology and Microbiology.
The objectives of the course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding about the basics of microbiology (general characters of etiologic agents of infectious diseases, host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis of infectious diseases, prophylaxis and therapy, drug-resistance mechanisms, nosocomial infections), and provide the ability to apply the knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts (in the approach to the patient with infectious diseases).
At the end of the course, the student, also exploiting the previously acquired knowledge concerning anatomy, biology and physiology, will need to demonstrate knowledge and understanding about the pathophysiological phenomena representing the basic events related to infectious diseases, the etiological agents of infectious diseases and their interactions with the host, the causes and consequences of nosocomial infections.
The student, applying the knowledge and understanding acquired, shall also be able, in collaboration with other professionals, to identify the problems related to infectious diseases and contribute to their prevention.
Sufficient knowledge of biology, anatomy, biochemistry and physiology
are needed to address the topics of the course.
Course contents summary
General alteration of growth and death, cellular and molecular oncology,
genetic and metabolic diseases and general physiopathology. Blood and
hematopoiesis and components of innate and acquired immune system.
General features of acute and chronic inflammation and
immunopathology. Immunoemathology and transfusional medicine.
Introduction: microorganisms and viruses. 1. Virology. Morphological and
structural characteristics of viruses. Viral replicative cycle. Virus
cultivation. Common human viral diseases. 2. Bacteriology. The general
characters of bacteria. Host-microbe interactions. Normal flora of
humans. Microbial pathogenicity. Important pathogenic bacteria.
Antimicrobial agents. 3. Parasitology. The general characters of protozoa.
Common human protozoa infecting tissues and blood, intestinal and urogenital
tracts. Helminths (notes). 4. Mycology. General characters of
fungi. Classification of mycoses. Common human mycoses. Antifungal
agents. 5. Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases. Pre-analytical
phase: sample collection. Detection and identification of the etiologic
agent. Antibody detection. Methods for antibacterial and antifungal
Cellular Pathology: Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation.
Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Necrosis and
Oncology: classification and nomenclature; Benignant and malignant
tumors; Tumor aetiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; invasivity
and metastasis; pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. Grading and
The blood: composition, cells, general pathophysiology. Anemia and
Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma. Phases and event of
the haemostatic response. Hemorrhagic disorders; thrombosis and
Inflammation: events of acute inflammation; the exudate; types of
exudate; phagocytosis; chronic inflammation and granulomas; abscesses
and ulcers; chemical mediators of inflammation; systemic effects of
inflammation and fever; tissue repair.
Genetic disorders: mutations; monogenic diseases: examples of
autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders;
Multifactorial disorders: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus.
Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and cooperation. Antigens and
Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors.
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Functional anatomy of the immune
response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and
secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to
infections. Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary immunodeficencies.
Blood groups. AB0 system. Rh system. Other blood groups. Hemolytic
disease of the newborn. Fundamentals of transfusional practice.
- J. Maier e Mariotti “Elementi di Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia”
- V. Del Gobbo "Immunologia per le lauree sanitarie" III ed., Piccin
- G.M. Pontieri “Elementi di Patologia Generale per i Corsi di Laurea in
Professioni Sanitarie” III ed., Piccin
- G.M. Pontieri “Elementi di Fisiopatologia Generale per i Corsi di Laurea
in Professioni Sanitarie” III ed., Piccin
Visual aids made available online;
Harvey R.A., Champe P.C., Fisher B.D. Le basi della microbiologia Con approfondimenti clinici. Zanichelli
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through
lectures trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of
Lectures accompanied by visual aids will be used to convey critical information on the topics relating to the course content.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination.
Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test
knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline,
and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course content will be used to test the student’s knowledge and understanding in the field, and her/his ability to apply the knowledge and understanding in the approach to the patient with infectious diseases.