OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND RADIOPROTECTION
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To increase the awareness of health risks associated with the use of ionizing radiations
Understanding the meaning of risk and of health risk factor; ability in identifying the possible health risk in the work environment. Knowledge about the main hazards in the health care structures. Knowing the possible impact of the organization on professional's health. Basic knowledge about the accident and occupational diseases prevention. Knowing the effects of ionizing radiations and the basic principles of protection (PPE, working practices; health surveillance).
Course contents summary
Basics of Occupational Medicine and Principles of Prevention at the workplace
1)Italian Legislation on workers' safety and health protection; the active role of workers in prevention of occupational accidents and occupational diseases.
2) Risk factors and working activity: hazard and risk; personal protective equipments; work illnesses and work-related diseases; hazards and risks in the Health care System.
3)Exposure to biological agents (bio-hazards)at workplace; exposure-prone procedures and the personal protective equipment.
4)Chemical risks: (i) drugs, cleaners, disinfectants; (ii) antineoplastic drugs; (iii) gaseous anesthetics. Allergies to chemicals and devices.
5)Ergonomics of health care work; manual material handling and manual patients handling. The organization as a possible health risk factor; work-related stress.
6) Occupational exposure to ionizing radiations; technical and medical prevention.
7)The health surveillance for health care professionals; preventive and periodical medical examination.
Part 1 EPIDEMIOLOGY
definition of health and determinants of health/disease
evolution of the definitions of health
The continuum health-disease
The importance of measuring health thought health-indicators
The Burden of Disease
Definition of epidemiology and fields of study of the epidemiology Fields of study of the demography, census, the population pyramid, Fundamental parameters of populations: general mortality, infant mortality, life expectancy at birth
Measures in epidemiology: prevalence and incidence rate, relation between incidence and prevalence
Epidemiological measures of risk association
characteristics of the association causal
the causal factors and risk factors
the relative risk (RR) -how does it work
odds ratio (OR) how does it work
Classification of epidemiological studies:
observational studies and experimental studies
case-control studies (odds ratio)
cohort studies (relative risk)
clinical trials ( what it means to randomize)
Definition of screening, characteristics of a screening campaign
sensitivity, specificity, predictive values
examples of screening (eg, neonatal, cancer)
Part II HYGIENE
General epidemiology of infectious diseases
The micro-organisms (saprophytes, commensals and pathogens), and host-parasite relationships, infection and disease, infectiousness, diffusivity, pathogenicity, virulence;
Reservoirs and sources, sick and infected individuals (healthy carriers, early, convalescent and chronic);
mechanisms (ways) of direct transmission, semi-direct, indirect, vehicles and carriers.
Elements of general epidemiology of non-infectious diseases
The "levels of prevention": primary, secondary, tertiary.
Prevention of infectious diseases (notification, diagnostic tests, insulation)
Disinfection: main disinfectants
Sterilization main methods of sterilization (critical tools, semi-critical and non-critical)
Asepsis (maintaining sterility)
Antisepsis or handwashing (felling and removal pathogens)
Immunoprophylaxis: what are the vaccines, main categories, general theory of active immunization. Vaccination of Childhood
Special prevention of infectious diseases: overview of etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical, prevention of the following diseases: tuberculosis, influenza, meningitis. hepatitis a hepatitis b, hepatitis c and AIDS
Health care-associated infections: definition, epidemiology, risk factors, preventive measures.
Special prevention of chronic diseases: neoplastic disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease
Environmental: hygiene: water (pollution and potability requirements'), waste management, special hospital waste.
1)Definition of Health and Determinants of health and disease
a Methods in epidemiology
b Elements of demography
2)General epidemiology of communicable diseases
a Reservoir and Source of the infection
b Modes of transmission
3)Some epidemiological aspects of non-communicable diseases
4)The levels of prevention (Primary, Secondary and Tertiary)
5)General Prevention of communicable diseases
b Diagnostic assessment
c Isolation and quarantine
g Active immunization
h Passive immunization
6)General Prevention of non-communicable diseases
a The methodology of screening
7)Highlights in communicable disease prevention
a TBC, Influenza, meningitides and measles
b Hepatitis A
c Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV-AIDS
8)Highlights in non-communicable disease prevention
a Cancer disease
c Cardiovascular disease
a Food and water-borne disease
b Water as a vehicle of infection (pollution and disinfection)
10)Healthcare associated infections and environmental opportunistic pathogens
Lezioni di Medicina del Lavoro. Mutti, Corradi. Ed Berti
Slides from classroom lessons
Frontal lessons with A-V devices support and classroom discussion
Assessment methods and criteria
Written test and/or oral examination