HISTORY OF LOGIC
Learning outcomes of the course unit
1- knowing and comprehension capability
general knowledge of the historical development of logic and historiographical methodologies
2- knowing and applied comprehension capabilities
the historical-theoretic basis have to be applied in analyzing the texts presented in the course
3-4-5 independent judgment, communicative skills, learning capabilities
improving the capabilities of independent judgment on arguments concerning the history of logic and capabilities to evaluate different historiographical positions; skills in presenting own considerations in a coherent manner, adducing arguments for them.
There are no prerequisite requirements.
Course contents summary
History of logic from Aristotle to Leibniz
Categories and De Interpretatione: the categorical sentence, subject and predicate, truth conditions, opposition and negation. Prior Analytics: definition of syllogism, perfect-imperfect syllogisms, modes and figures, conversion laws, proves of imperfect syllogisms; the syllogistic from the point of view of modern formal logic; the limits of formalization.
Logical syntax; elements of the theory of meaning; Hypothetic syllogistic; axioms and inference rules; examples of syllogistic proves.
The comments on De Interpretatione; elements of semantics; logical form; categorical and hypothetical syllogisms.
The medieval supposition theory:
Meaning and supposition of the terms; syntactic and semantic aspects; a proto-theory of quantification.
The doctrine of non-syllogistic inferences:
from the Topic to consequentiae theory.
Hobbes, Port Royal logic, Leibniz.
Course notes can be downloaded from the website http://www.slprbo.
unipr.it in the
“documents” folder (access with password for students taking the course)
General bibliographical references:
A useful trail is supplied by the entry 'Logic (History of)' dell'Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. by P. Edwards, New York-London, 1967, vol. IV: see in particular: 'Ancient Logic' di C. Lejewski, 'Medieval Logic' di E. A. Moody. Histories of logic: W. Kneale & M. Kneale, The development of logic Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1978 [Storia della logica, Torino Einaudi 1972]; J.M. Bochenski, Formale Logik, Freiburg – Munchen, K. Alber, 1956 [La logica formale vol.1, Dai presocratici a Leibniz, Torino Einaudi 1972]. On Leibniz and modern logic, see: C. Mangione, Storia del pensiero filosofico e scientifico di L. Geymonat, new edition, Garzanti, Milano, 1975, vol.II, pp. 344-365.
Assessment methods and criteria
Final written test: It consists in a set of questions aimed to verify the comprehension of the developped issues and the student's exposition skills
Final oral exam: the central issue is the discussion of the written text. Particular attention will be paid to: 1) the comprehension of texts; 2) the capacities to use a technical-philosophical language; 3) the clarity in circumscribing and exposing the various arguments considered in the course.