History of culture and values
Learning outcomes of the course unit
1. Knowledge and understanding
The goal of the first part: knowledge of the main philosophical movements that at the turn of 19th and 20th Centuries focus on value-problem. Knowledge and understanding of some philosophical works related to the course-subject, partially read and commented during the lessons.
The goal of the second part: knowledge and understanding of the introductory and basic assumptions of the Husserlian theory of value and its position within the debate developed in the first part of the course. Knowledge and understanding of the Husserlian works (recommended readings).
2. Applying Knowledge and understanding
Knowledge of the problematic issues addressed in the course and of the methodologies used to develop the main problems. Ability to place the theoretical and historical fundamental aspects within the history of philosophy.
3-4-5. Autonomy of judgment, communication and learning skills
Ability to identify similarities and differences among the examined philosophical traditions. Improvement of reasoning skills in order to formulate independent judgments considering the most relevant historical-philosophical aspects.
Course contents summary
The course consists of two parts. The aim of the first part is recalling the key moments of Austrian-German debate that it arose from the Rudolf Hermann Lotze’s distinction between realm of facts and realm of values. Indeed this distinction is the reference point for the two main philosophical movements that, at the turn of 19th and 20th Centuries, focus on this problematic issue, namely the Neo-Kantianism, or ‘Southwest’, School (Windelband, Münsterberg, Rickert) and the School of Brentano (Brentano, Meinong, Ehrenfels).
The second part of the course focuses on the Husserlian rethinking of some fundamental assumptions of the previous debate and, more specifically, on their development according to a phenomenological perspective. Hence, in order to clearly understand the phenomenological account of value, it will be necessary, on the one hand, to outline a number of preliminary issues underlying the Husserlian logical account, and on the other hand, to show how their application to the theory of value is possible.
First part of the course - The genesis of Philosophy of Values between Philosophy and Psychology
H. Lotze, Logica, Libro terzo, Bompiani, Milano 2010, pp. 924-1158.
F. Brentano, L' origine della conoscenza morale, Castelvecchi, Roma 2014.
H. Rickert, Filosofia, valori, teoria della definizione, Milella, Lecce 1987.
Second part of the course - Phenomenology of Value: Edmund Husserl
E. Husserl, Prolegomeni ad una logica pura, in E. Husserl, Ricerche logiche, Volume primo (some sections of the book).
E. Husserl, Lineamenti di etica formale, Le lettere, Firenze 2005, pp. 25-86.
Supplementary texts (optional):
L. Dappiano, La teoria dei valori: ricostruzione storica, in L. Albertazzi - L. Dappiano - R. Poli, Valori. Analisi e bibliografia commentata, il poligrafo, Padova 1996, pp. 11-38.
L. Albertazzi, Introduzione a Brentano, Laterza, Bari-Roma 1999.
S. Besoli - L. Guidetti (a cura di), Conoscenza, valori e cultura: Orizzonti e problemi del neocriticismo, Vallecchi, Firenze 1997.
B. Centi, L’armonia impossibile. Alle origini del concetto di valore in R. H. Lotze, Guerini, Milano 1993.
V. Costa, Husserl, Carocci, Roma 2010.
D. Zahavi, La fenomenologia di Husserl, Rubbettino, Soveria Mannelli 2011.
Frontal lessons, seminars
Assessment methods and criteria
Students’ knowledge and understanding skills will be verified in two ways: 1) a written examination, with open questions, aimed at verifying the knowledge and understanding of the topics; and 2) an oral examination aimed at verifying (a) the comprehension of philosophical texts; (b) the ability to contextualizing the different problematic issues within the history of philosophy; (c) the ability to appropriately use philosophical terminology. The final grade is the result of the written examination and the oral examination.