MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student should acquire basic knowledge on bacterial and mycological cells
and on viruses and immune phenomena.
Course contents summary
The first lessons will focus on basic concepts concerning the bacteriology, mycology and virology.
We will start the training by analyzing in detail the prokaryotic cell by evaluating structure and physiology. It will then consider the spore and we will proceed evaluating bacterial environmental reports taking into account: nutrition, metabolism and bacterial cultivation strategies defined on the basis of the different intrinsic needs. Criteria for bacterial identification and taxonomy. Bacterial genetics: mutations, recombination. Biotechnology: concepts and basic techniques of genetic engineering. In this step of the way, on the basis of epidemiological triad, we will address the following concepts: pathogenicity, virulence, infectivity, receptivity, infection, disease, concept of healthy carriers; pathogenicity factors. Will discuss various molecular techniques applied to microbiological diagnostics. It will address critically the genesis of the 'evolution of an infectious disease: primary lesion, dissemination, tropisms. Then we will mention the basics relating to disinfection processes as well as antibiotics: different classes and mechanism of action.
Attention will be given to the important topic Mycology analyzing: general characteristics of fungi, their pathogenic action and the main pathogens of medical and veterinary interest. The student will frame the immune response to fungal infections planning any therapeutic interventions with antifungal and anti-fungal. The last chapter of the first tranche of the fundamental lessons correspond to virology: interaction of viruses with eukaryotic cells and
cultivation and titration. Non-conventional infectious agents.
At this point, we will proceed by analyzing how the host reacts to bacterial, viral or micetic attac starting by framing the hole immune system.
Nonspecific mechanisms of protection of the skin and mucous membranes. Phagocytosis and Antigen concept.
Humoral immunity, primary and secondary immune response, immunological memory, recirculation of lymphocytes; active immunity, complement system, interferon, serological reactions: precipitation, agglutination, hemagglutination and its inhibition, neutralization, complement fixation, immunofluorescence, radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassays. The entire course requires a parallel process of practical working in laboratory during which the student, personally, will interface with some different metabolic processes according to the outline below: bacterial cell wall and the Gram stain. Architecture and spore stain by Shaeffer and Fulton. Structure of the capsule and staining with India ink. Various biochemical and enzymatic tests (oxidase, catalase, urease, TSI, lysine and ornithine decarboxylase, esculinasi, nitrate reduction, chemical Gram). Rapid slide agglutination and latex. Identification system API. Various techniques of sowing on soil liquid and solid. Susceptibility test for antibiotic sensitivity and MIC. Structure and staining of Saccharomyces cerivisiae. Microscopic analysis of Malassezia. Virus culture in cell culture and embryonated eggs. Evaluation of different cytopathic effects. Titration of virus by hemagglutination and plaque lysis method.
Shape, dimensions, spatial arrangement. Structure of the cell
prokaryotic: nucleus, cytoplasm, cytoplasmic inclusions, ribosomes,
plasmids, cytoplasmic membrane, mesosome, bacterial cell wall, flagella,
organs of adhesion capsule antigens. Protoplasts, spheroplasts, forms L. The
Spore: sporogenesis, the structure of the spore, germination, biological meaning.
Nutrition, metabolism and bacterial cultivation strategies defined on the
the basis of different intrinsic needs. Reproduction: the growth curve.
Criteria for bacterial identification and taxonomy.
Bacterial genetics: mutations, recombinations (transformation,
conjugation and transduction), converting phage, plasmids and R one, islands
pathogenicity. Biotechnology: Concepts and basic techniques of engineering
genetics. Concept of pathogenicity: virulence, infectivity, receptivity,
infection, disease, concept of healthy carrier; pathogenicity factors.
Molecular techniques applied to microbiological diagnostics. Genesis and
evolution of an infectious disease: primary lesion, dissemination,
Understanding the disinfection. Antibiotics: classes and mechanism
General characteristics of fungus. Pathogenic action of fungus and main
pathogens of interest in veterinary medicine. Immune response to
fungal infections. Strategy to fight fungal infection.
Chemical composition, size, structure of the virus symmetry cubicaelicoidale,
complex, capsid, capsomeres, peplos, peplomers.
Bacteriophages. Interaction of viruses with eukaryotic cells:
adsorption, penetration, replication, maturation, liberation.
Cultivation: tissue culture, cell culture, animal receptive, eggs
T itolazionedeivirus: metodifisici, biologiciemediante
Taxonomic Characteristics of DNA viruses and RNA. Infectious agents
Nonspecific mechanisms of protection of the skin and mucous membranes. Phagocytosis:
phagocytes professionals and occasional osponine, the dynamics of phagocytosis,
fate of phagocytosed microorganisms, the consequences of survival.
Antigens: digit value physico-chemical determinants or epitopes, haptens and carriers,
immunogenicity, antigen-dipedenti thymus-independent and thymus.
Humoral immunity: primary and secondary lymphoid organs, classes of lymphocytes,
production of antibodies, structures and classes of immunoglobulins,
Local immunity and cell-mediated. Primary and secondary response,
memory, recirculation of lymphocytes. Active immunity: infection,
vaccination, vaccine types, routes of administration. Immunity
passive transplacental, colostrum, from-immune sera. Complement:
components, via classical, alternative and properdinica activation,
Interferons: classes, production, biological significance in antiviral defense
and in the immune response delayed. Hypersensitivity. Reactions
Serologic: precipitation, agglutination, hemagglutination and its
inhibition, neutralization, fissazionedelcompleme nto,
immunofluorescence, tecnicheradioimmunolo gichee
Bacterial cell wall and the Gram stain. Architecture of the spore and
staining Shaeffer and Fulton. Structure of the capsule and color
by ink. Various biochemical and enzymatic tests (oxidase,
catalase, urease, TSI, lysine and ornithine decarboxylase, esculinasi, reduction
nitrates, chemical Gram). Rapid slide agglutination and latex.
Identification system API. Various techniques of sowing of liquid medium and
solid. Susceptibility and MIC. Structure and coloration of Saccharomyces
cerivisiae. Microscopic examination of Malassezia. Cultivation of
virus in cell culture and embryonated eggs. Evaluation of different effects
cytopathic. Titration of virus using hemagglutination and method
Abbas A.K. et alt. Cellular and molecular immunology. Elsevier 2010
Poles at elt. Veterinary microbiology and immunology. UTET 2009.
Brock Biology of microorganisms (volumes 1, 2, 3) Pearson 2012.
The entire didactic activity involving the use of slide (the material
will be made available at the end of the course online)
Practical activities will be carried out in the laboratory for bacteriological purposes
Assessment methods and criteria
The student will be able to manage the process necessary to
taxonomically classify a microorganism (both clinical origin
that coming from a food substrate). The final exam will be