HISTOLOGY EMBRYOLOGY ZOOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Zoology is taught as a module within the course of Histology, Embryology and Zoology. The major learning objectives include knowledge and understanding of basic biology, genetics, taxonomy and the fundamentals of animal behaviour and ecology, with the aim to allow the srudent to use this knowledge for a better understanding of the morphology and function of invertebrates and vertebrates of veterinary interest.
The module of "General Veterinary Histology and Embryology" is a part of the integrated course of "Histology and Embryology Zoology." The course aims to enable the student to know and understand the concepts of cytology, histology and embryology and to acquire the knowledge for the recognition of the various tissues by light microscopy. In addition to understanding the dynamics of development from gametogenesis to the formation of the embryonic three germ layers, changes in the birth of the fetal circulation, the dynamics of the formation of the fetal membranes and placentation in animals of veterinary interest. At the end of the course, the student will have to demonstrate to know and understand the notions teached on the various topics during the frontal teaching and practical activity. Particularly, the student have to: correlate the structural features to the functions both at the subcellular, cellular and tissue levels; apply this knowledge in the recognition of the various tissues through optical microscope analysis; know the gametogenesis, the formation of the three germ layers, the fetal circulation, the fetal membranes and placentation in animals of veterinary interest.
Specific knowledge required for the entrance examination or alternatively recovery of the debt of Biology.
Course contents summary
The first part of the course concerns basic principles of the origin of life on Earth and evolution theory, with special emphasis on the chemical and physical phenomena that led up to these events.
The second part of the course is dedicated to the taxonomy and classification of the major life groups of veterinary interest.
The third part of the course deals with he basic principles of animal behaviour and ecology.
The course includes theoretical lessons that take place in the classroom and practical lessons that take place in the laboratory of histology and in the Room of Microscopic Anatomy .
The course consists of 3 parts. In the first part, that is devoted to cytology, the structure of the eukaryotic cell is recalled and in-depth analized. In the second part, that is devoted to general embryology, are given knowledge on embryological development from gametogenesis to the formation of the three germ layers.
In addition, teaching on the fetal membranes, the placentation and the fetal circulation and the related changes at birth for the species of veterinary interest is done. In the third part, that is devoted to histology, the teacher provides knowledge on structural and functional characteristics of the various tissues and on the techniques and equipment necessary for the preparation of histological slides and their analysis.
In the practical lessons the student is exercised in recognition of tissues by light microscopy. For the practical activity is required the distribution of students in different groups, the number of groups is related to the total number of students and on the lab and room capacity.
The origin of life on Earth.
The life: biological principles and science of zoology. The evolution of the cell. From molecules to the first cell.
The cell and continuity an of animal life.
From molecules to the first cell. From Procaryotes to Eucaryotes. From single cell to multicellular organism.
The evolution of life on Earth.
The history and development of evolutionary theory. The origin of species. The patterns of inheritance.
Diversity of animal life.
Architectural pattern of an animal. Classification and phylogeny of animals.
Co-evolution host-parasites. Adaptations to parasite life.
Molluscs. Arthropodes. Chordates: Fishes. Amphibia. Reptiles. Birds. Mammals.
Basic taxonomy. Invertebrate/Vertebrate structure and function of those species of primary veterinary medical interest.
Some principles of homeostasis. Internal fluids and respiration. Circulation. Excretion and thermoregulation.
Functional organization of animals.
Protection. Support and movement.
Overview of form an function of systems.
Digestive system. Nervous system. Reproductive system. Sensory system. (These topics are explored from an evolutionary point of view).
Animals and their environments.
Animal distribution and growth. Dynamics of ecosystems. Population ecology. Conservation biology.
Basic element of animal behaviour.
The study of animal behaviour and its applications in veterinary medicine.
Learning and instinct.
Reflexes. Modal action patterns. Associative learning. Classical conditioning. Instrumental conditioning.
Behavioural genetics, evolution and domestication.
Evolution of behaviour. The function of behaviour. Behavioural effects of domestication.
Social and reproductive behaviour.
Communication. Living in groups. Sexual interaction. Play Human and animal interactions.
Behavioural disturbances, stress and welfare.
Normal and abnormal behaviour. Stereotypies. Abnormal aggression. Stress. Assessing welfare. Behavioural indicators of welfare.
The history of animal behaviour studies.
The schools of the 20th century. Modern approaches to ethology. Applied ethology. Species-specific behaviour of some important domestic animals. (Images gallery. Video interview. Seminars. Population genetics test).
The Biological membrane and the Plasma membrane: structure.
Cytoplasmic organelles: Smooth and Rough Endoplasmatic Reticulum, Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Mitocondria, Cytoskeleton: Microtubules, Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments; Centrioles, Centrosome.
Interphase Nucleus: Nuclear Envelope, Nucleoplasm: Nuclear Matrix, Chromatin: Euchromatin, Heterochromatin and Nucleolus.
Intercellular and cell to matrix junctions: Occluding junctions; Adherens Junctions: Adhesion belt, Desmosomes, Hemidesmosomes and Focal adhesions; Communicating junctions. Junctional complex.
Specializations of the apical edge of plasma membrane; structural features and localizations: Microvilli, Cilia, Sterociglia.
Stages of cell cycle. Proliferation state, potency and cell differentation.
Remind of cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis. Definition of programmed cell death.
Spermatogenesis e Oogenesis.
From spermiogenesis to anfimixis.
Gastrulation: formation of the three germ layers.
Derivates of the embryonic germ layers.
Placenta and extraembryonic membranes in mammals of veterinary interest.
Fetal circulation and adaptations to postnatal life.
Embrionyc anexa in birds.
Instruments and methods for cell and tissue observation and study.
Methods for the preparation of a histology section: sample harvest, fixation, dehydration, embedding, sectioning, staining and mounting.
Elements of histological staining.
Structural organization of organs: Pipe organ, Parenchymatous organs, Laminar organs.
Epithelium Tissue: Embryonic origin and distinctive tissue characteristics.
Cleveland P., Hickman JR. et al. Diversità animale. McGraw-Hill, 2012, Web site.
Cleveland P., Hickman JR. et al. Fondamenti di zoologia. McGraw-Hill, 2012, Web site.
Mainardi D. L'Etologia caso per caso. Airplane, 2002.
K. Lorenz - Scienziato e guru della natura - LE SCIENZE, 1999.
P. Jensen - ETOLOGIA DEGLI ANIMALI DOMESTICI - Ed. italiana a cura di P.G. Bracchi, F. Grasselli e G. Zannetti - McGraw-Hill Ed., 2010.
In addition to the reference texts listed below, are available to students, in the special sites dedicated to them within the university homepage, accessible through identification and password, pictures of the histological slides used during the theoretical and practical activities:
PELAGALLI G.V., e coll.: Embriologia, Morfogenesi e Anomalie dello Sviluppo, Idelson - Gnocchi, Napoli, 2009.
BARBIERI M., CARINCI P.: Embriologia, Ambrosiana, Milano.
BARONE R.: Anatomia Comparata dei Mammiferi Domestici, Vol 4, Edagricole, Bologna.
DE FELICI M., e coll.: Embriologia Umana - Morfogenesi – Processi molecolari - Aspetti Clinici, Piccin, Padova, 2009.
LATSHAW W. K.: Lo sviluppo degli Animali Domestici – Embriologia ad Orientamento Clinico, Ambrosiana, Milano.
NODEN DREW M., DE LAHUNTA A.: Embriologia degli Animali Domestici – Sviluppo normale e Malformazioni congenite, Edi-ermes, Milano.
-Cytology and Histology:
ADAMO S., CARINCI P., MOLINARO., SIRACUSA G., STEFANINI M., ZIPARO
E.: Istologia di V. MONESI, Piccin, Padova.
CASASCO E.: Citologia Istologia, La Goliardica Pavese, Pavia
COOPER G. M., HAUSMAN R. E.: La cellula un approccio molecolare, Piccin, Padova
ROSS M. H., PAWLINA W., BARNASH T. A.: Atlante di Istologia e Anatomia
Microscopica, Ambrosiana, Milano, 2010.
BACHA W. J., WOOD L. M.: Atlante a colori di istologia veterinaria, Delfino, Roma.
YOUNG B., LOVE J.S., STEVENS A., HEATH J. W.: Wheater – Istologia e anatomia microscopica, Elsevier Masson, Milano.
Lessons are taught with the help thematic videos and several video clips in graphic motion that allow a clear illustration of the construction of phylogenetic trees, showing evolution of the various animal species. Video graphics are also used to simulate statistical tests that utilize databases.
The course includes theoretical lessons that take place in the classroom and practical lessons that take place in the laboratory of histology and in the Room of Microscopic Anatomy, where the student is exercised in recognition of tissues by light microscopy. For the practical activity is required the distribution of students in different groups, the number of groups is related to the total number of students, on the lab and room capacity and on the possibility of allowing each student to operate independently. During the academic year 2012-13 the students were divided in 2 groups each of which has carried out 20 hours of practical lessons.
Assessment methods and criteria
There is an oral examination at the end of the module that is aimed at verifying the success of each student in achieving the learning objectives. The three questions that make up the exam are chosen at random by the computer. Each question requires a rational and well-developed answer, and the need to connect the various principles and theories taught during the course. In this way it is possible to ascertain the degree of knowledge and understanding of all course objectives.
The final exam, structured to evaluate the achievement of the objectives of the course, include a practical and an oral tests.
The practical test consist on the recognition of tissues within an histological slide by the optical microscope and produce a written scheme with the description of the visualised tissue
The oral examination is based on the discussion of the written scheme from the practical test and on the answers to 3 questions, one for each part of the course, randomly identified by the computer.
At the end of the course, the student must be able to use acquired knowledge and show clear understanding of the following:
- the mechanisms involved in the evolution of life on Earth;
- genetic principles responsible for the variety of animal life;
- taxonomic basis for the classification of animal species;
- basic elements of animal behaviour and ecology, aimed at allowing the student to critically evaluate animal welfare and well-being.