Learning outcomes of the course unit
To provide the student with elementary knowledge relating to the process of plant production, with special reference to the processes of growth and development, maturation, harvest and storage of plant food productions for processing.
Course contents summary
INTRODUCTION TO PLANT PRODUCTION. Factors of production. Origins of agriculture and of cultivated crops. Yield and quality.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. Development and dry matter partitioning. Analysis and indexes of growth (canopy).
SEED PROPAGATION. Seed characteristics and germination in field crops. Dormancy. Sowing and sowing machinery.
AGAMIC PROPAGATION. Apomixy. Layering and other traditional techniques. Cuttings and grafting. Micropropagation. Nursery.
CLIMATIC VARIABLES: radiation, temperature, rainfall. Damages to crops by high and low temperatures.
PLANTS AND WATER: needs of the crops. Available water in the soil. Field capacity and wilting point. Effects of drought and water flooding. Methods of irrigation and their efficiency.
PLANTS AND MINERAL ELEMENTS. Main mineral nutrients; excess and deficiency. Antagonisms. Interactions. Macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur. Micronutrients: iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, chloride.
FERTILIZATION. The main available mineral fertilizers. Organic fertilizers. Fertirrigation. Needs of crops.
WEEDS AND HERBICIDES. Agronomical and chemical control. Effects of herbicides and their behaviour in the soil.
GROWTH REGULATORS: auxins, gibberellins, citokinins, ethylene.
SOIL: physical, chemical and biological properties. Management of water flooding. Drainage.
ROOT SYSTEMS. Development of the root system of field and fruit crops. Methods of root investigations. Indexes of root growth.
SOIL TILLAGE. Preparatore and complementary tillage operations. Plough and ploughing. Other tillage tools. Alterantive techniques.
PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. Monoculture, polyculture; intercropping; crop rotation. Organic farming. Cover crops.
PLANT AND SOIL WATER. Hydrologic cycle. Goals of soil water management. Irrigated crop production.
PRUNING. Physiology of pruning. Pruning operations. Training systems.
HARVESTING AND STORAGE OF CROPS. Growth and harvest of grain and forage crops Harvest horticultural crops: criteria for the choice of harvest time, and harvest techniques. Physiology of fruit maturation and ripening. Post-harvest physiology. Storage techniques: refrigeration, controlled atmosphere, other techniques.
PESTS AND DESEASES IN CROP PRODUCTION. Classification of plant diseases. Insect pests. Non pathogenic diseases. Principles and methods of pest management. Integrated pest management.
Fabbri A., 2001 - Produzioni Vegetali. Edagricole.
Baldini E., 1990. Arboricoltura Generale. Cluep.
Bonciarelli F. 1995 - Fondamenti di Agronomia Generale. Edagricole.
Giardini L., 2002 - Agronomia generale : ambientale e aziendale. 5. ed. – Patron, Bologna.
Hartmann H.T., Kester D.E. - Propagazione delle piante. Edagricole.
Landi R., 1999 - Agronomia eambiente. Edagricole, Bologna.