MATERIALS, TECHNOLOGIES AND INDUSTRIAL PLANTS (UNIT 2)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course the student will acquire the basic knowledge relating to the expertise in the activities of testing and characterization of packaging raw material and packaging object.
Applying knowledge and understanding
The student will be able to make proper choices in the selection of the many packaging options available today. The students will be able to use the acquired knowledge to analyze and process numerical data to support their decision-making.
On passing the exam the student will develop the ability to critically evaluate the analytical data of the mechanical behavior of a packaging material to predict its behavior in work, as well as the ability to interpret the data of the controls.
On passing the exam the student should acquire sufficient language property, at least as regards the technical and chemical terminology specific of the course.
Students who take the course will be able to deepen their knowledge in the field of materials for food packaging, by consulting on their own specialized texts or dissemination journals, even outside of the topics covered closely in class. Any final seminars will aim to introduce students to the latest developments in terms of research in the field of materials applied to food packaging: the student should acquire the knowledge and basic skills of the discipline to deal with, in the future, a deepening independent of these aspects.
Knowledge of Chemistry and Material Science (Technology of Applied Chemistry) are useful bases for the operation of the course.
Course contents summary
Terminology. Purpose and characteristics of packaging.
Chemical structure, characteristics and resistance of materials.
Mechanical properties. Mechanical strength and deformation.
Thermal properties. Optical properties. The behavior of a material to ionizing radiation. The behavior of a material exposed to microwaves. Mechanical properties.
Glass. Ceramics and other crockery. Plastics. Cellophane - Regenerated cellulose. Cellulosic materials. Paper and paperboard. Metals. Aluminum. Tinplate and other coated steels. Stainless steel. Corrosion of metals.
Chemical properties of packaging materials. Chemical structure and characteristics of the materials. Atomic constituents. Bonds between atoms. Molecular bonds. Molecular organization. Chemical properties of interest to the packaging materials. Resistance to oils and fats. Environmental stress cracking resistance. Burning behavior. Biodegradation, biodeterioration, biotoxicity, biofilm formation. Physical properties of packaging materials: surface properties, thermal, mechanical and electromagnetic. Surface properties. Surface tension, wettability and adhesion. Methods of measurement of surface properties. Relationship between contact angle and surface energy. Modification of the surface energy. Thermal properties. Thermal conductivity. Heat capacity and specific heat. Coefficients of thermal expansion. Useful temperature range (range of use). Calorific value and energy content. Transition temperatures. Mechanical properties. Creep resistance (friction). Mechanical strength. Properties related to dynamic stress. Shock absorption properties (cushioning properties). Electromagnetic properties. Interactions between electromagnetic radiation and matter. Electromagnetic properties of the packaging materials in the visible and ultraviolet regions. Behavior of a material subjected to ionizing radiation. Behavior of a material irradiated with microwaves. Density and related properties. Density. Weight. Glass and glass packaging. Chemical structure of the glass. Production of glass. Physical and chemical properties of the glass. Mechanical properties. Thermal properties. Optical properties. Chemical reactivity. Technology of production of glass containers. Press-blow technique. Blow-blow technique. Annealing. Quality Control. Reinforcement techniques of glass containers. Ceramics.
Materials and plastic packaging. Structure and properties of plastics. Nature of raw materials. Polymerization mechanism. Tacticity. Molecular weight. Reaction to heat. Glass transition temperature. Morphology. Structural organization. Polymer blends and polymer alloys. Structural changes in the plastics industry. Orientation. Shrinking. Main polymers used in food packaging. Most common polymers. Polymers sealing. Polymers with high gas barrier. Less common polymers. Symbols and abbreviations of polymers and some of their characteristics. Packaging materials and plastic packaging. Additives of plastics. Films or films. Trays and hollow injection molded. Thermoformed trays and hollow bodies. Bottles and plastic bottles. Foamed plastics.
Cellulosic materials and packaging. Morphological structure of cellulose fibers. Chemical structure of the cellulose fibers. Lignin. Hemicelluloses. Cellulose. Paper and cardboard. Raw materials for the production of paper and paperboard. Production technologies. Additives used in the production of paper and board. Special papers. Paper properties. Corrugated cardboard. Stiff cardboard. Coated Board. Cellulose modeled. Cellulose pulp. Cellophane. Regenerated cellulose. Envelopes and paper bags. Folding boxes. Corrugated cardboard boxes.
Metals and metal packaging. Aluminum. Production and characteristics of aluminum alloys. Technology of production of manufactured of aluminum. Tinplate and other coated steels. Production of steel and their characteristics. Structure, properties and manufacture of tinplate. Structure, properties and production of chrome strip. Other coated steels. Stainless steels. Metal containers. Deformable tubes. Aerosol containers. Kegs (barrels) in stainless steel. Drums and barrels. Jars and canisters. Interior protective coatings. Corrosion of metals.
Luciano Piergiovanni, Sara Limbo "Food packaging. Materiali, tecnologie e qualità degli alimenti". Springer-Verlag Italia, 2010.
G. L. Robertson “Food Packaging ans Shelf life: A practical Guide”. CRC Press / Taylor & Francis Group, 2009.
Lectures with the aid of Power Point. Educational visits (in case of Companies availability).
Assessment methods and criteria
Written examination which consists of 5 questions to each of which are assigned up to 6 points. Students who gained at least 18/30 in the written examination may apply to take an oral supplementation (which will account for 50% of the final grade), or verbalize the mark of the written test.