APPLIED PHYSISCS II
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The module of "Applied Physics II" is part of the Integrated Course "Chemical-Physical and Experimental Sciences". The module has been designed to convey knowledge and understanding of basic physics principles, providing an introductory basis for other disciplines including Physiology, Health Physics, Radioprotection, Non-ionizing Radiations, Electromagnetic Fields, etc.., that rely on the physical phenomenology on make frequent use of it.
The course will also provide the conceptual basis for understanding a number of major technologies that are used with increasing frequency. In this sense, the module also aims to develop the students' attitude towards independent study and continuing education on the application of physical techniques to several fields.
As its final, but perhaps most important, goal, the course has been designed to stimulate students to become more familiar with certain common concepts, that are not always sufficiently explained in previous studies, such as: light and its manifestations, also in relation to the structure of the eye and its physical defects, fundamentals of electrical, magnetic and nuclear phenomena, the laws that govern potential and current, electromagnetic and nuclear radiation, perturbations induced in means passed through and aspects of detection and control.
Course contents summary
The module of "Applied Physics II" will deal with the fundamental principles of electromagnetism and optics.
Applications and consequences on human body physiology and medicine will be stressed. In particular, deeper insights will be provided into the effects of electric currents on the human body, and the use of radiations in diagnosis and therapy.
Optics: Reflection and refraction - Total reflection and optical fiber - Optical system, focus and dioptric power - Spherical diopter - Thin lenses, mirrors and image construction - Compound microscope - Resolution strength - The eye as a dioptric system - Principal ametropies of the eye and their correction using lenses - Wave theory of light - Laser light.
Electricity, magnetism and electrical current: Electrical charges and Coulomb’s law - Electrical field - Work of the electrical field and electrostatic potential - Dipolar field - Overview of muscle fiber and electrocardiogram - Gauss’s theorem and its applications - Faraday cage - Electrical capacity and capacitor - Current intensity - Overview of the electronic structure of insulators, metallic conductors and semiconductors - Ohm’s law - Series and parallel resistors – Electromotive force - Thermal effect of current - Electrical conduction in liquids - Passing of current in the human body -Thermoionic and photoelectric effects - Magnetic field and its action on current and magnets - Biot-Savart law - Ampere’s theorem of circulation - Solenoid - Electromagnetic induction - Self-induction – Alternating voltage and current - Impedance - Electromagnetic waves.
Radiation: Structure of the atom and nucleus - Quantum numbers, electronic orbitals and transitions - Unstable isotopes and alpha, beta, gamma radiation - Law of radioactive decay and half-life - Radiation detection - Biomedical applications of radioisotopes - X-rays (production, properties and absorption mechanisms in the matter) - Radiological image - Overview of computerised axial tomography (CAT) and radiofrequency (NMR) imaging techniques- Overview of radiation safety.
Bersani, Bettati, Biagi, Capozzi, Feroci, Lepore, Mita, Ortalli, Roberti, Viglino, Vitturi: Elementi di Fisica, Ed. Piccin Nuova Libraria (Padova).
Scannicchio: Fisica Biomedica, Ed. EdiSES (Napoli).
Giambattista, McCarthy Richardson, Richardson: Fisica Generale, Ed. McGraw-Hill (Milano).
During classroom lectures, the topics contained in the program of the
module will be illustrated and commented. Emphasis will be posed on the applications to biology and medicine of basic physics principles, with examples of how such principles can lead to quantitative predictions on physiological and pathological phenomena.
In selected cases, the demontration of basic physics principles will be illustrated, with the aim to introduce the students to the practice of logical thinking and experimental approach.
Assessment methods and criteria
The achievement of the objectives of the modules "Applied Physics I" and "Applied Physics II" will be assessed through a written exam, mainly consisting in open questions on the topics of the course. This will allow to ascertain the knowledge and the understanding of both the theoretical bases and their practical consequences.
The written exam will include the resolution of problems, to assess the achievement of the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to a simulated, though realistic situation.
All parts of the written exam will be equally weighted in the final evaluation.