PROPHYLAXIS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims is to let the student understand, regarding to the various infectious and contagious diseases, what are the conditions, factors and situations which are associated with the risk of their spread and to acquire and apply preventive strategies to be adopted for their control.
The student will gain the ability to identify, within the different types of transmission of infectious disease and specifically for each pathology treated, the "critical points" of diffusion, any categories of persons which are most exposed in relation to the professional activity, the implications associated with the propagation of infectious pathogens and the types of preventive action to be implemented.
Course contents summary
The first section of the course will deal, in a general way, with the most important infectious and diffusive pathogens which are associated with a occupational or environmental risk of exposure; in particular aspects of oral-fecal, parenteral, aerial and injury related transmission we will be explored.
Then it will continue with a more specific study of the most important diseases associated with professional activities highlighting the epidemiological aspects and the basic prevention strategies that can be adopted to control their spread.
The course, finally, will conclude with a discussion of immunological and pharmacological prevention strategies for the control of infectious diseases in occupational hazard.
Transmission routes in the professional and environmental impact of major infectious diseases: oral-fecal, parenteral, air and trauma related transmission.
• Diseases transmitted by fecal-oral route: HAV and S. typhi infections
• Diseases transmitted by parenteral route: HBV, HCV, HIV infections
• Airborne diseases: influenza, rubella
• Diseases transmitted in association with trauma: tetanus
• Active and passive immunoprophylaxis: typologies of vaccines and serums, vaccine strategies for vaccination in childhood, adulthood (in relation to occupational exposures) and the elderly.
• Pharmacological prophylaxis
Barbuti, Fara, Giammamco, Carducci - Coniglio - aa.vv. “IGIENE” terza edizione, Monduzzi Editore, 2011.
The course will consist primarily of lectures with the help of computer aids. For the discussion of the topics mentioned, reference will be made, with regard to the epidemiological aspects, to data available in the literature and / or at specific databases updated, while relatively prevention strategies we will adhere to the Italian legislation.
After providing students with the basics, we will proceed in dealing with their direct involvement progressively to assess the overall level of acquisition of the basics of hygiene and prevention and the ability to apply them to different issues tackled.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the level of learning achieved and the achievement of the objectives of the course will be carried out with an oral examination. During this test, the students must demonstrate that they have acquired and understood the contents of the course and are able to apply preventive actions in relation to the diseases treated. With regard to the minimum requirements of passing the exam, the student will demonstrate knowledge of at least the general prevention interventions to be applied in different transmission modes of infectious diseases and the topics of the strategies of immuno-and chemoprophylaxis.