FOOD MICROBIOLOGY (2¦ FORM)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course of Food Microbiology (II mod) aims to know the effect of the presence and development of spoilage and virtuous microorganisms in food. In particular, it should be developed knowledge about the principal alterations of microbial origin of food. Students must know the intrinsic, extrinsic and implicit factors that influence the development and survival of microorganisms in food. The knowledge of these aspects will provide the essential elements for understanding the role of microorganisms in food production and their impact on food quality. The use of this knowledge will also allow to understand the principles of the control of microorganisms using physical, chemical and biological or their combinations. The course aims to put the student in a position to draw conclusions about the effect of the presence and development of different microorganisms in food.
Knowledge of the basic principles of microbiology
Course contents summary
The first lessons are about topics of general interest related to microbial contamination and the effect of their development in food, the role of different microorganisms in different food (food spoilage, food fermentation)
The second part of the course are about the methods that can be used to analyze the presence of microorganisms in foods
The third part of the course focuses on the factors that influence the growth of microorganisms in foods and the modalities of their control in order to prevent or reduce the development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and promote the growth of microorganisms virtuous
The microbiological quality of foods.
The microorganisms in fermented and non fermented foods. Microorganisms in foods: bacteria, yeasts and moulds.
Microorganisms as indicators of process and contamination.
The contamination of foods.
Pro-technological microorganisms: fermentation.
Spoilage microorganisms: food degradation.
Factors which influence the growth of microorganisms in foods: temperature, pH, Aw, potential redox and availability of oxygen, food composition.
The control of growth and survival: checking pH.
Checking the Aw, use of low and high temperatures, packaging and protective atmospheres.
Other technological interventions that impact microorganisms: treatment with ionized radiation. Applications of high pressure and electric pulses.
Food additives addition.
Methods for the microbial analysis of foods.
Non fermented Foods.
Meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, fruit, milk and soft drinks
Fermented Foods. Cheese and fermented milk, fermented vegetables, wine, beer, bakery products, sausages
Giovanni Antonio Farris, Marco Gobbetti, Erasmo Neviani, Massimo Vincenzini “Microbiologia dei prodotti alimentari” (2012) Casa Editrice Ambrosiana ISBN: 978-88-08-18246
Materiale didattico relativo alle lezioni
The teaching will be carried out through frontal lessons using slides that represent teaching material made also available online in pdf format for students. The course will also be joined by lessons about methods of laboratory analysis regarding the protocol most commonly used for counting of microorganisms
Assessment methods and criteria
Specific lessons aimed to assessing the state of learning will be carried out at the end of each part of the course. Final examination will be carried out by a written examination with 10 closed and open questions. Each questions will be evaluated in a range between 0 and 1. The final evaluation will be related in thirties and will represent the 34% of the total examination. The average achieved will be the same or more than eighteen in order to pass the exam.
Books for further information: Jay J.M., Loessner M.J., Golden D. A. “Microbiologia degli alimenti”. Springer (2009).
Galli Volonterio A. “Microbiologia degli alimenti”. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana (2005).