HUMAN ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course is designed to give the students the methods for studying the morphological and functional organization of the human body at the different levels of organization: the cell, the tissues, the organs, the gross anatomy of the human body.
the student must recognize organs at the macro and microscopic level
the student must solve simple case studies
the student must use technically sound terminology
the student must be able to summarize a brief anatomical text
Course contents summary
The cell and its components: the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, the nucleus.
The formation and organization of tissues. Epithelial tissue and glandular classification, localization and morpho-functional correlations. Connective tissue: classification, localization and morpho-functional correlations; ossification; hematopoiesis; blood cells and platelets. Muscle tissue: classification, localization and morpho-functional correlations. Nervous tissue: classification and localization of cell types.
Methods for sample preparation and the main histological stains. Analysis of histological preparations by light microscopy.
Musculoskeletal system: structure (cytological and molecular organization) of bone, cartilage and muscle. Generality on the bones, joints and major muscle groups. Gross anatomy of the bones that make up the skull, trunk and limbs. Macroscopic and functional anatomy of the joints of the spine, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee and ankle.
Cardiovascular system: cellular and molecular organization of endothelial cells. Macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the heart, coronary vessels, heart valves. Structure of the wall of the arteries, veins and capillaries. Course of the main arteries and veins.
Functional anatomy of the primary blood cells-forming organs (bone marrow) and primary (thymus) and secondary (spleen and lymph nodes) lymphoid organs
Digestive system: general organization: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. Liver and bile ducts. The pancreas and pancreatic ducts. The peritoneum.
Respiratory system: general organization: larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs. Anatomy and functional morphology of the riverbed lung.
Urinary system: gross anatomy and microscopic-functional anatomy of the kidneys. Molecular anatomy of the nephron.
Endocrine system: general organization. The hypothalamus and the neurosecretory nuclei, pituitary and pineal glands. thyroid and parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, the pancreatic islets.
Central and peripheral nervous system: general organization.
F.H. Martini, Anatomia Umana EdiSES (http://www.edises.it)
Marinozzi G. - Anatomia Clinica 2° ed. (Antonio Delfino Editore)
Anatomia dell'Uomo 2° ed. (Ambrosi et al.) Ed. Edi-Ermes
Stevens A. – Lowe J., Istologia Umana. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
CLASS LECTURES AND MICROSCOPY LAB
Assessment methods and criteria
Written test with 30 multiple choice questions at the end of the course.
The questions will be focused on the main topics on human histology and anatomy.
The preparation of the student will be considered sufficient with 18/30 correct answers.