Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have integrated his knowledge about natural phenomena governing the transformation of matter, will have a complete overview of the laws governing the structure of atoms, molecules and compounds; know the theoretical reasons that are at the basis of the energy balance during the transformations of matter, will know how to obtain electrical work by processes of redox transformations.
Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to understand some physical and chemical characteristics of the substances, such as state of aggregation and volatility, hardness and fragility based on the knowledge of their structure. He will know how to quantify spontaneity of chemical and electrochemical processes and quantify the mass and energy balance during these transformations.
By the end of the course, the student should be able to evaluate, with critical mind, the experimental measurements of chemical reactions
By the end of the course, the student should be able to clearly present the experimental results of chemical reactions.
A solid background in physics and mathematics is recommended.
Course contents summary
Fundamental laws of chemistry. Chemical reactions. Mass relationships in chemical reactions. Reactions in water solution. Atomic structure. Basics of atomic theory. Electromagnetic waves. Atomic spectra. Quantized energy. The Bohr atom. Protons, neutrons and electrons. The quantomechanic atom. Orbitals and their energies. Electronic configurations of elements. Pauli’s principle. Hund’s rule. The aufbau principle. Periodic system of the elements. Periodic properties. Electronegativity. Metals, non metals, metalloids. Inorganic nomenclature. Chemical bond. Ionic bond. Covalent bond. Molecular geometry. Structural formulas. Exceptions to the octet rule. VSEPR theory. Bond in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Valence Bond theory (VB). LCAO-MO theory. Intermolecular forces. Hydrogen bond. The behaviour of gases. The ideal gas law. Gaseous mixtures. Real gases. Liquefaction of gases. The properties of liquids. Vapor pressure of liquids. Phase diagram of one component systems. Phases rule. Boiling and melting points. The properties of solids. Crystal packing. Ionic crystals. Covalent crystals. Molecular crystals. Metal crystals and metal bond. Solutions. Concentration. Raoult's law. Colligative properties. Chemical thermodynamics. First principle of thermodynamics. Thermochemistry. Hess's law. Standard enthalpy of formation. Enthalpy of reaction. Combustions. Second principle of thermodynamics. Third principle and absolute entropy. Entropy variation in chemical reactions. Spontaneity of the reactions. Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constant. Chemical equilibrium. Homogeneous equilibria. Le Chatelier-Brown principle. Dependence of equilibrium constants from temperature. Ionic equilibria. Acids and bases. Broensted-Lowry theory. Ionic product of water. pH. Strength of acids and bases. Polyprotic acids. Hydrolysis. Solubility product. Electrochemistry. Electrical and chemical energy. Galvanic cells. Daniel cell. Cell potential. Electrode potential. Standard electrode potentials and their applications. Redox reactions. Nernst equation. Corrosion of metals. Common galvanic cells. Accumulators. Electrolysis. Faraday's law. Chemical kinetics. Reaction rate. Influence of temperature. Introduction to catalysis. Nomenclature of principal organic compounds.
B. Laird, Chimica Generale,
Additional educational material available on demand
Lectures using slides. Optional tutorials with the help of High School teachers.
Assessment methods and criteria
The examination is based on a written questionnarie and an oral exam. The examination is weighted as follows: 30% written lab report (proper analysis of the experimental data 20%, clarity in presenting the results 10%); 70% oral exam (theory questions 20%, application of theory also to original problems 20% and speaking ability 30%).
Attendance strongly recommended