Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student will have to correctly address the main internal medicine clinical scenarios in an Emergency-urgency setting, and will have to know the basics of therapeutics.
Knowledge of physiopathology, semeiotics and clinical methodology, basics of clinical pharmacology.
Course contents summary
The most common internal medicine syndromes in Emergency setting: diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment
1) Alarm Symptoms (coma, cardiopalm, headache, motor deficiency, diarrhea, dyspnoea, pain, bleeding, fever, back pain, vomiting, etc.).
2) Cardiovascular emergencies (arrhythmias, acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolism, acute pulmonary edema, pericarditis, aneurysms, critical ischemia, hypertensive crises).
3) Pulmonary emergencies (bronchospasm, pneumonia, pneumothorax, respiratory failure).
4) Emergencies of the digestive system (digestive bleeding, perforation, acute appendicitis, intestinal occlusion, acute pancreatitis, acute diverticulitis, biliary colic).
5) Neurological and psychiatric emergencies (epilepsy, TIA, stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, delirium, acute psychosis, drug and / or narcotic abuse).
6) Infective illnesses (meningitis, sepsis, endocarditis).
7) Endocrinological emergencies (diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar syndromes, Addison's disease, thyrotoxicosis).
8) Hematological emergencies (coagulopathy, acute anemia, acute leukemia, acute piastrinopenia).
9) Nephro-urologic emergencies (renal colic, acute renal failure, nephritic syndrome).
10) Acute acid-base and hydro-electrolyte balance alterations.
11) Internistic polyrauma complications (Crush syndrome, compartmental syndrome, rhabdomyolysis).
12) Shock: definition, classification, clinical and therapeutic approach.
13) Healthcare Principles (triage, overcrowding in Emergency Departments: Causes, Consequences and Remedies).
Casagranda-Ghiselli. Medicina d'Emergenza-Urgenza. Ed Idelson-Gnocchi 2017
Assessment methods and criteria