ANATOMY OF THE LOCOMOTIVE APPARATUS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to provide knowledge of the structural bases of the axial portions (head, neck, trunk) and appendicular portions (upper and lower limbs) of the human body that contribute to the standing position, movement in space and motor skills. The organogenesis of the bones, muscles, ligaments and bands, their contribution to the conformation of the external body, including age-related changes, sex and constitution, their macroscopic and microscopic aspects, are described from the point of view both systematic and surface anatomy. Basic concepts of anthropometry, visceral structures, vascular and nerve association to the osteo-arthro-muscular scaffold are provided.
Course contents summary
Organogenesis of the skull, neck, trunk and limbs, and concepts of metamerism. General morphology of the human body and its various constitutional variants. General information on bones, joints, ligaments, skeletal muscles and fascia. General features of the skull, sutures and fontanelles, pneumatic bone, main skeletal anthropometric references. Antrerior surface of the skull, orbital cavity, nasal cavity, buccal cavity, frontal sinuses, maxillary sinuses, ethmoid sinuses; mimic muscles of the face. Lateral surface of the skull and temporal bone, sphenoid, mastoid sinuses, temporal-mandibular joint, masticatory muscles and fascia. Rear surface of the skull: occipital bone, atlanto-occipital joints, muscles and sides of the neck. Cranial vault: external and internal surface, with references to muscles, ribs, meninges, venous sinuses. Skull base: internal and external surfaces, including references to the fossa, the sphenoidal sinus, the meninges, the bands and neck muscles, the blood vessels and nerves that pass through it, the viscera of the neck.
Arterial and venous blood supply, lymphatic system and somatic and visceral innervations of the skull and neck.
References of clinical anatomy of facial reconstruction, the vault and skull base and intracranial spaces.
Spine: bones, joints, ligaments, extensor muscles, hip flexors and rotators, chest bones, joints and intrinsic muscles.
Shoulder girdle: scapula, clavicle, joints, muscles of the shoulder girdle, muscles of the shoulder joint, muscles, joints.
Hips: bones, joints and muscles of the pelvis. The abdominal wall.
Arm and leg bones, joints, muscles.
Surface anatomy: abdominal-inguinal region (inguinal canal), inguinal-femural region. Imaging and Radiotherapy (SSD MED/36, CFU 0.5)
Overview on the radiology of the musculoskeletal system
Anatomia Umana (Anastasi et al.), Ed. Edi-Ermes;
Anatomia del Gray (Gray), Ed. Zanichelli;
Atlante di Anatomis di Frank H. Netter, Ed. E. Masson
Atlante di Embriologia Umana di Frank H. Netter, Ed. E. Masson
formal lectures and practical tutorials on anatomical specimens
Assessment methods and criteria
written test with multiple choices