Learning outcomes of the course unit
The aim of the course is to acquire the fundamentals of electronics applied to the measurement instrumentations typically used in a physics' research laboratory.
At the end of the course it will be acquired:
basic knowledge about the physical operating principle of some of the major semiconductor electronic devices and their applications in the realization of circuits with discrete and integrated elements into the digital and analog electronics.
basic knowledge on the operation of sensors and transducers and related methods of signal conditioning.
basic knowledge on the control, acquisition and signal processing electronics.
Fundamentals of physics (mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism and optics).
Course contents summary
At the end of the course, the student will be able to understand the physical operation of the main instruments commonly used in a research laboratory. He will be able to understand the measurements of physical quantities from the point of view of the acquisition of the experimental data elaborating a critical vision in function of the electronics used.
Basic of electronics
The p-n junction, the diode and the transistor
The diode as a circuit element, pnp and npn transistor, operation modes of the transistor, use of the transistor, common-emitter, common-collector and common-base configurations, MOSFET transistors, small signal model, common-source amplifier, Common-Drain amplifier (Source Follower), notes on the JFET transistor.
General characteristics, operational amplifiers, applications, active filters, low pass and high-pass filter, band-pass filter.
Measurements in complex systems
General concepts, measurements of physical quantities:
Measurements of voltage, current, resistance, (analog and digital multimeters), analysis in the time domain, frequency domain analysis, signal-to-noise ratio, Lock-in amplifier.
Thermocouples, sensors, photoelectric and photovoltaic, piezoelectric sensors, Hall effect sensors.
Thermometers, strain and pressure gauges, capacitive and inductive sensors.
Structure of a measuring system: transducers and signal conditioning
Amplification and attenuation, filtering, sum and difference with the reference signal, integration and linearization, conversion of a voltage / current signal into a voltage / current signal, converting a frequency into a voltage signal.
Acquisition and control:
analog control system: the PID controller: proportional, integrative and derivative action
A/D converters: sampling, digitization, data acquisition and signal processing.
D/A Converters: alteration of analog signals, control of the measuring system.
For depth study:
MICROELECTRONICS - Jacob Millman and Christos C. Halkias, Ed BOLLATI BORINGHIERI.
MICROELECTRONICS - Milmann-Grabel, Ed MC GRAW-HILL.
APPUNTI DI ELETTRONICA. DISPOSITIVI ED ELETTRONICA ANALOGICA LINEARE - Roberto Menozzi, Ed PITAGORA.
FONDAMENTI DI PROGETTAZIONE ELETTRONICA ANALOGICA E DIGITALE - A. De Gloria, Ed Franco Angeli.
THE ART OF ELECTRONICS - P. Horowitz, W. Hill, Ed Cambridge University Press (Book encyclopedia, very clear, well made and fairly up to date).
Lectures enriched with applications and exercises.
Assessment methods and criteria
Possible program expansion according to the specific students's needs.